After David is chosen and anointed King, a wonderfully telling incident takes place. Before his death, David gave his final admonition to his son, Solomon, saying. It is therefore not too surprising that King David, one of the most virtuous men in the Bible, forgets his place, his responsibilities to God and to his subjects, and starts a love affair with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite - one of his Mighty Warriors. In consideration of David’s frequent success and amazing skills in his service, King Saul promoted David, who continued to amaze his men and all Israel. His father must have viewed him as trustworthy and responsible to give him sole care of his herds. All rights reserved. “Samuel said to Saul, ‘You have acted foolishly; you have not kept the commandment of the Lord your God, which He commanded you, for now the Lord would have established your kingdom over Israel forever. David was the first king in Jerusalem whose reign was later looked back on as a golden era. It was David’s success as a mighty warrior that fueled Saul’s jealousy. He flees to Gershur and stays with his mother, Michal’s family there, and returns three years later with another plan to steal David’s throne. Therefore, Nathan prophesies that David would experience perpetual consequences of warfare within and without his kingdom, and that he would suffer public humiliation because he tried to cover up his horrific sins. In accordance with all these words and all this vision, so Nathan spoke to David.” (2 Samuel 7:16-17, emphasis added). He is known by many titles: David the conqueror, David the pious man, David the sweet singer, David the shepherd and David the penitent. Eventually, David goes to his best friend, Jonathan, who is also King Saul’s eldest son, for help. A former shepherd, David was renowned for his passion for God, his touching psalms and musical abilities, his inspiring courage and expertise in warfare, his good looks and illicit relationship with Bathsheba, and his ancestral connections to Jesus of Nazareth in the New Testament. He had a deep desire to follow God’s will and do “everything” God wanted him to do. David has hopes to build God’s temple in Jerusalem, but that David’s offspring will be the one to “build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever” (v. 7:13). The nation of Israel was living in turbulent spiritual times. The promise that David's house and throne would be established eternally is important because it is a prophecy concerning the coming Messiah—specifically, that He would come from the house of David (Matthew 21:9). He slept out under the cover of darkness. Knox, J. S. (2017, October 18). When he grew older, Saul sought to take David… He was a musician (I Samuel 16:16-23). But what made David a cut above the rest was that his heart was pointed toward God. In David's early life, … Third, any loyalty of Joab to David is gone. King David. That doesn’t include fifty-nine references to him in the New Testament. Now the LORD loved him and sent word through Nathan the prophet, and he named him Jedidiah [“Beloved of the LORD”] for the LORD’s sake.” (2 Samuel 12:24-25, emphasis added), "Then David slept with his fathers and was buried in the city of David. But his armor-bearer was terrified and would not do it; so, Saul took his own sword and fell on it. When a lion or a bear came and took a lamb from the flock, I went after him and attacked him, and rescued it from his mouth; and when he rose up against me, I seized him by his beard and struck him and killed him." “Then David said to Nathan, 'I have sinned against the LORD.' The whole of Israel mourns, though, at the death of Samuel, and Saul, knowing that sorcery and witchcraft is forbidden by the Law, goes to Endor to conjure up Saul. “Then Samuel said to Jesse, ‘Send and bring him; for we will not sit down until he comes here.’ So he sent and brought him in. Samuel, who has been so depressed over King Saul, finds hope and blessing in the young shepherd from Bethlehem in Judea. Nathan immediately pronounces judgment upon David, crying out, “You are the man!” (v. 12:7). That’s how we learn to ‘king it.’”, David was “a skillful musician, a mighty man of valor, a warrior, one prudent in speech, a handsome man,” and the LORD was with him. Rather than insist that an older, more experienced officer (or even himself) go out to defend God and Israel against Goliath, King Saul endorses David’s wishes. He came to the home of Jesse. Why does David seem to be the most important king of Israel in the Bible, rather than Solomon? David conspired to have her husband killed in the field of battle so that he could take Bathsheba as his wife. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Left dangling, Joab slays Absalom and buries his body in a deep pit in the wilderness. 1 Samuel 18:2–3 states, “From that day Saul kept David with him and did not let him return home to his family.”. This city which resides in ancient Palestine comes from the Hebrew word “Yerushalayim” meaning, “foundation of peace,” or the base (yarah) of peace (shalom). '” (2 Samuel 12:13), Sadly, David and Bathsheba lost the child that she bore to David. First, he was the great Torah scholar. He spent hours alone tending sheep. As with his successor, King Solomon, little evidence has been uncovered to prove the historical existence of King David; however, recently discovered direct and indirect evidence provides greater substantiation for David's life and kingship (although little to back up the Biblical assertions and specific events during his reign). And Samuel prayed to the LORD. No doubt he was thinking of the goodness of the Lord to him. Saul began to experience periods of mental and emotional suffering, brought on by either a bipolar disorder or an evil spirit (according to the biblical text). Eventually, though, David’s forces clash with Absalom’s forces, and as he flees, “Absalom’s hair got caught in the tree” (v. 18:9). While David was tending the flock, he was learning to play the harp. King David. Ally suffers from RSD and is passionate about God’s redemptive work in the lives of those who suffer from physical and emotional pain. He will follow God’s plan for him despite the barriers that appear before him. (I Kings 2:10-11), "And Solomon sat on the throne of David his father, and his kingdom was firmly established." Strangely, Tamar's older brother Absalom comforts her and says, “Be quiet now, my sister ... Do not take this thing to heart” (2 Samuel 13:20), but he never speaks to Amnon about the event. Additionally, survey data compiled by Avi Ofer in 1994 CE that suggest a doubling of 11th-Century BCE Judean population (particularly in Northern Israel), and potential Jebusite fortresses that were discovered in excavations directed by Yigal Shiloh (1978-1985 CE) - both of which are discussed in the Old Testament - lend credence to the notion that David and the Kingdom of Israel were part of the region's historical and cultural existence. He humbly replies, “I have sinned against the Lord.” Nathan then informs him that his sins are forgiven, but their child of sin is going to die. David was the youngest son of a man named Jesse and was chosen by God to be king of Israel at a young age, the Hebrew Bible says. How important do you think King David was to Israel? One of his servants remembers that David is an excellent musician and recommends Saul employ him as an armor-bearer (the one who carried a large shield and other weapons for the king) and a musical balm of sorts for his tortuous episodes. Of course, there was the sin with Bathsheba, the murder of her husband Uriah, and the subsequent cover-up. The biblical author designed these stories to say something about God’s value system that is so different from our own, and in order to generate hope for the future. It is then that Jonathan finally comprehends how insane his father is with hatred for David. John S. Knox, PhD in Theology & Religion (University of Birmingham, UK), is Associate Professor of Psychology & an online instructor of Apologetics & Seminary Studies at Liberty University. Several things happen because of this. The appellation “son of Jesse” served as a synonym for David both at Saul’s court and, subsequently, when David became king. Something about David captured the imagination of the biblical prophets and poets. He learned the meaning of surviving in the wild. He has the men killed, cuts off their feet and hands, and hangs their bodies in shameful display. In 1993 CE, Avraham Biran discovered the Tel Dan Inscription on a broken stele in northern Israel. It became a standard poetic metaphor in the Bible. This led to an attempted coup by his son, Adonijah (whose mother was Haggith, David’s fifth wife), who proclaimed himself to be king with the assistance of General Joab and Abiathar the Priest; however, the majority of Israel’s institutional agents did not support Adonijah’s claim. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Moreover, David’s illicit affair and subsequent devious actions (leading to the assassination of Uriah the Hittite and its cover up) complicated the rest of his reign - along with the rape of Tamar, the murder of Amnon, and the attempted coup of Absalom, among other controversies. Just dull, plain L-I-F-E. Just constant, unchanging, endless hours of tired monotony as you learn to be a man or woman of God…with nobody else around, when nobody else notices, when nobody even cares. But David's prominence in Scripture is primarily due to his relationship with God. 3 Reasons the 'Christmas Star' of 2020 Is Bringing So Much Hope, 10 Signs Your Marriage Is Built on Christ, Christmas Light Show Set To 'Mary Did You Know', Violinist Lindsey Stirling Performs 'Carol Of The Bells', 10 Ways to Sabotage Your Marriage (Without Realizing It), 5 Things Parents Should Know about "Soul", 9 Ways Grandparents Can Share Christmas This Year, Even from Far Away. Last modified October 18, 2017. God called him "a man … Jesus Christ was called the Son of David, referring to the everlasting kingship of David's house, according to the Davidic covenant. Related Content He was a powerful warrior. Based on his appearance, he thought surely this is the LORD’s choice. Before they part, Saul asks David to swear that he will not kill off Saul’s children, which David easily does. “So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; from David to the deportation to Babylon fourteen generations; and from the deportation to Babylon to the Messiah, fourteen generations.” (Matthew 1:17, emphasis added), “Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever.' (I Samuel 17:34-35). King David & Solomonby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). However, the final two chapters offer a poetical homage to God and to his men. He knows God has a Purpose for him and will not let circumstances rob him of that plan. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him.”. Saul collapses, a broken and self- ruined man who only heaped innocent bloodshed atop his arrogant, disobedient acts. Hearing that David is mournful beyond consolation, Joab marches into David’s house and shames him for humiliating and alienating his men by his great lament for a wicked son. Article Images Copyright ©. According to biblical tradition (and some say myth), David (c. 1035 - 970 BCE) was the second king in the ancient United Kingdom of Israel who helped establish the eternal throne of God. And Nathan said to David, 'The LORD also has taken away your sin; you shall not die. Saul, the people’s choice, was chosen to be king. https://www.ancient.eu/King_David/. As a young man, David was a shepherd. One might expect David to be jubilant about Saul’s death, but David truly never wanted Saul dead. Kings who were once allies waged war in the Siddim Valley, and during this time, Abrams nephew Lot was taken prisoner. Ancient History Encyclopedia. David’s kingdom may have been a strong chiefdom or a kind of empire at this point, but it was still not well organized with a strong central administration. What Is the David Connection? There is so much that can be said about him. But of all the kings of Israel and Judah, David is the king most people recognize. Chosen by God “as a man according to His own heart”, David was tried in the school of suffering during the days of exile and developed into a military leader of renown. The Philistines, the non-Semitic people of ancient southern Palestine, had a powerful warrior in their midst, though - Goliath, who (according to the Bible) was nearly ten feet (3 m) tall. As Absalom’s conspiracy and its support grows, David flees from the forces of Absalom, not wanting to kill his son. God Loved David So Much Because God Chose David. Hearing of this, Abram sets out to reclaim his relative and his possessions. King David, the Administrator. Cite This Work He must pay for that lamb four times over, because he did such a thing and had no pity” (2 Samuel 12:5). David conspires to hide his sin and so, calls Uriah home from the battlefield and tries to get him to sleep with his wife. 26 Dec 2020. “Now when evening came David arose from his bed and walked around on the roof of the king’s house, and from the roof he saw a beautiful woman bathing; and the woman was very beautiful in appearance.” (2 Samuel 11:2), “The woman conceived; and sent and told David, and said, ‘I am pregnant.” (2 Samuel 11:5). Uriah, however, is too devoted and too lawful to squander his time while his men are dying in battle. He pursued David for the rest of his life. He slowly declined until his life ended tragically and in disgrace. 1 Samuel 16:23 states, “Whenever the spirit from God came on Saul, David would take up his lyre and play. Although historians agree that David was probably a real person, there is little evidence of his life outside of the Bible. Expecting a great reward like the previously mentioned Amalakite, they bring Ish-Bosheth’s head to David who immediately executes them for their despicable and criminal activity, saying, “Wicked men have killed an innocent man in his own house and on his own bed” (v. 2 Samuel 4:11). (I Samuel 18). Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. As I said, this city has been anything but a city of peace. Surely, loneliness was his constant companion. A former shepherd, David was renowned for his passion for God, his touching psalms and musical abilities, his inspiring courage and expertise in warfare, his good looks and illicit relationship with Bathsheba, and his ancestral connections to Jesu… Over 400 years separated the final events and final prophecy recorded in the Old Testament (ca. His decision was bad judgment on his part and set the stage for his devastating fall into iniquity. Rather than the noble & virtuous warrior of the Lord, now David has become as bad if not worse than murderous Saul. David was anointed as king while Saul was still on the throne. “Then David came to Saul and attended him; and Saul loved him greatly, and he became his armor bearer.” (I Samuel 16:21), Whenever the evil spirit from God overwhelmed Saul, David would play his harp and Saul would calm down and be refreshed, and the evil spirit would leave Saul alone. Adapted from God in the Details: A Biblical Survey of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures (Kendall-Hunt, 2017). David said, “Assuredly Solomon your son shall be king after me, and he shall sit on my throne in my place” (1 Kings 1). Unfortunately, Saul had developed an ego problem, so he begins to resent David especially when he hears people singing, “Saul has slain his thousands, and David his tens of thousands” (v. 18:7). Strange as it may seem, those who first accept the silence of obscurity are best qualified to handle the applause of popularity.” (Chuck Swindoll), Chuck Swindoll describes one of God’s favorite methods of training as monotony: “That’s being faithful in the menial, insignificant, routine, regular, unexciting, uneventful, daily tasks of life. He learned to endure the change of seasons and weather the elements. David’s initial zeal for God and for ethical integrity paved the way for his early fame and fortune, although being a man of warfare and blood (according to the scriptures), God decided that David was not suitable to be the one to build God’s temple (that would be placed in the hands of his son, Solomon). Thus I have seen You in the sanctuary, To see Your power and Your glory. Seeing the defeat of their army, the Israelites fled the region, opening up the lands to Philistine occupation and exploitation, which was later supported by the Philistine's use and smithing of iron. Why King David is one of the Bible’s most compelling characters. The ending of the book is distressing. (I Samuel 16:18). According to biblical tradition (and some say myth), David (c. 1035 - 970 BCE) was the second king in the ancient United Kingdom of Israel who helped establish the eternal throne of God. Saul is critically wounded, and pleads for a nearby Israelite soldier to kill him, afraid of torture or molestation if he is found alive. Why Is He Important? And for good reason. After all, Saul tried to kill David several times. As Goliath charges toward David, the young man slings a stone, which hits Goliath square in the forehead, knocking him out. Rather than the noble and virtuous warrior of the Lord, now David has become as bad if not worse than murderous Saul. It was time for God to put His man on the throne--and He was going to use Samuel to help Him do just that. David was the youngest of Jesse’s eight sons. What Is an Archangel and What Is His Role in the End Times? Not only was David an adulterer, he also was a murderer and an ungrateful king who abused his position to please his loins and protect his renown. King David is one of the most important figures in Jewish history. On the seventh day, the son dies, and David’s response is amazing. The book concludes with more descriptions of the incessant warfare David was promised by the Prophet Nathan. You come against me with sword and spear and javelin, but I come against you in the name of the Lord Almighty, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied. In fact, David goes out of his way to avoid Saul and/or repays Saul’s evil with good. Following Saul’s death, David was appointed king of Judah for seven years before becoming king of all Israel. David, second king of ancient Israel and an important figure in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. After some wardrobe changes (eventually donning his normal garb), David selects five river stones for ammunition and sets out to face his giant enemy. When the armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he too fell on his sword and died with him. But there was also the ill-advised census motivated by Davids pride, not to mention a series of lessons in how not to manage your household well. Second, Bathsheba mourns for Uriah - there is nothing said about this being a unified plan. For Saul, he sings of him being a mighty warrior; for Jonathan, he sings of him being a faithful brother. David thereafter offers a memorial to Saul and Jonathan. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 18 Oct 2017. David was king, and his land was at peace. The LORD told Samuel to appoint them a king. Everywhere Saul sent him, he prospered. 10 Times Jesus Showed Up in the Old Testament and What They Reveal, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. “Now the LORD said to Samuel, ‘How long will you grieve over Saul, since I have rejected him as king over Israel? After Jesse parades nearly all his sons by Samuel, each one rejected as king, he finally brings his youngest - David, who “was glowing with health and had a new appearance and handsome features” (1 Samuel 16:12). Little is known about Nathan’s early life, though some Jewish sources, like Avrohom Bergstein in this article, indicate he may have studied either directly or indirectly under Samuel. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Amnon probably believed he had gotten away with the rape of his half-sister because his father David was mad but did nothing about the crime. Fill your horn with oil and go; I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have selected a king for Myself among his sons.’” (I Samuel 16:1, emphasis added). With Ish-Bosheth dead, David is offered the crown by the elders of Israel, and 2 Samuel 5:4 records, “David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years.” He then conquers Jerusalem - Zion - to which he soon also brings the ark of the covenant. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. In a contest for the best king of Israel, David would surely win. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Although feminists claim that David forced Bathsheba, and traditionalists claim that Bathsheba seduced David, the truth is more one of mutual culpability except, perhaps, that as king and the model for the Law of God, David had a higher obligation to protect and not exploit Bathsheba. And yet everyone familiar with the Bible also recognizes that David did a lot of not-so-great things. In the Hebrew scriptures, 1 Samuel 16 introduces readers to a young man who will capture not only the heart of the nation of Israel, but also the heart of God. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. With a name like that, we can expect great things, but little is revealed in our introduction to the revered Melchizedek in Genesis 14. Scholars have long noted that David’s hopes for his enemies was for them either to be removed or to repent. The book of 2 Samuel begins with David hearing the news that his best friend and God’s anointed king have been slaughtered by the Philistines. The son of Jesse of the tribe of Judah, David initially gained attention through the killing of Goliath. (I Kings 2:12). To the masses he was a hero. Knox, John S. "King David." Samuel spoke on behalf of the LORD and gave Israel warnings regarding requesting a king. So, God sends the Prophet Nathan, the Prophet Samuel's successor, to deliver a “rhetorical” message of treachery, which makes David burn with anger against the rich man who steals the poor man’s one little lamb. If David was unwilling to hurt God’s anointed, why would anyone think that he would be alright with King Saul’s assassination? David was everything for everybody. He started out strong. God is so wonderful that u have to praise & worship him in ridiculous or madness way weather is in public or privite u have to done it because he deserve it . Sixty-six chapters are dedicated to him. Jerusalem means “king” (jeru) of “peace” (shalom), but it has been anything but a city of peace. King David had to have been thinking of King Saul when he penned those famous words in Psalm 51:11. Stunned, David is also met with news from an Amalekite (a descendant of Esau, son of Isaac the Patriarch) that the man killed Saul, taking his crown and armband for David. Allyson Holland is a former Director of Ministry to Women and former board member for Thrive Ministry. He was anointed by Samuel to be king of Israel. Once King Saul realized what has just happened, he weeps bitterly, finally self-aware that he has been unrighteous, blood-thirsty, and ungodly, whereas David has properly and mercifully showed himself to be worthy of being Israel’s next king. Seeing the youngest of Israel so easily dispatch their strongest warrior sent terror through the entire Philistine army and they fled. Don’t I know that you have sided with the son of Jesse to your own shame and to the shame of the mother who bore you? He was the real founder of the monarchy, the head of the dynasty. Because Your lovingkindness is better than life. In the relentless demands of obscurity, character is built. Web. “Men and women of God, servant-leaders in the making, are first unknown, unseen unappreciated, and applauded. 1 Samuel 20:16–17 states, “So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, ‘May the Lord call David’s enemies to account.’ And Jonathan had David reaffirm his oath out of love for him, because he loved him as he loved himself.”. “Speak truth to power” originates with David. What a positive evaluation! 424 B.C.) And the LORD said, ‘Arise, anoint him; for this is he.’” (I Samuel 16:11b-12), “Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon David from that day forward. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Tamar comes over to help her brother (Amnon) who pretends to be sick, and when she gets close, he grabs her and molests her. Despite Saul’s wickedness, David does not want to harm Saul, “God’s anointed.” Saul, on the other hand, has given in to the darkness of his heart and soul, even going so far as to kill some priests of the Lord. Samuel followed the instructions of the LORD despite his fears. There are many answers that could be given that would not be wrong: David was courageous, he was passionate for the Lord, he was obedient to the Lord, he was a worshipper of God, he was repentant when he sinned, he had great character, and he had a zeal for building the Lord a house. David the son of Jesse was an outstanding musician, poet, warrior, and statesman. And Samuel arose and went to Ramah.” (I Samuel 16:13), According to Charles R. Swindoll, Josephus, the historian, says, “Samuel the aged whispered in his [David] ear the meaning of the symbol, ‘You will be the next king.’”. 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