is basalt mafic or felsic

Common mafic rocks include basalt and gabbro. All rights reserved. The term “mafic” combines the words “magnesium” and “ferric” and are usually dark-colored rocks. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. 6. The most common examples of rocks classified as Mafic are gabbro, dolerite, and basalt. Common mafic rocks include basalt, diabase and gabbro. Read More on This Topic felsic and mafic rocks Felsic rocks and magma contain high levels of feldspar and silicon. Here’s a lesson in geology discussing mafic and felsic rocks. Felsic rocks are mostly light-colored and the most common type is granite. Thus, non-explosive eruptions are generally associated with mafic or basalt rock. Sign up for our newsletter to get comparisons delivered to your inbox. Mafic rocks usually found in abundance include dolerite, gabbro, and basalt. Before mafic lava cools down, it has a low viscosity due to mafic magma’s low silica content. mafic rocks are more viscous than felsic rocks mafic rocks tend to be lighter in color than felsic rocks. Basalt a mafic rock : Granite a felsic rock : 1. What is the approximate silica content of a granite? Gabbro is mafic, intrusive, coarse-grained rock with allotriomorphic texture. 6.Mafic rocks are darker in color than felsic rocks. Rocks are host to massive sulfide deposits (Crandon and Pelican River). Mafic rocks often also contain calcium-rich varieties of plagioclase feldspar. A rhyolite porphyry at Jennings (Oneida County) has an age of 1869 +/- 6 Ma. “Mafic” is a term that describes igneous rocks or silicate material characterized by a rich content of iron and magnesium while felsic rocks are igneous rocks that are rich in light elements such as oxygen, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and sodium. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide), usually 70% or more. 20% 50% 70% 100%. 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In geology, mafic is a term which describes an igneous rock or a silicate mineral rich in iron and magnesium. Basalt qualifies as a mafic igneous rock because of its high level of magnesium oxide. In terms of chemistry, this means that mafic and felsic minerals and rocks are at opposite ends of the elemental spectrum. basalt gabbro diorite granite. This is the mineral that gives basalt its dark color. Difference between Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks, Difference between Seltzer, Club Soda, and Tonic Water, Difference between a Broiler, Fryer and Roaster Chicken, Igneous rocks rich in oxygen, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and sodium. What are the mountain formations on the moon... Where is the most basalt rock in the United... What is Sandstone? 2. determine color/composition: mostly light minerals = felsic; half light, half black (or gray in fine grained rocks) = intermediate; mostly black minerals = mafic; mostly olivine = ultramafic felsic: glass (may contain a few minerals typical of felsic rocks) pumice: mafic: glass (may contain a few mineral typical of mafic rocks) scoria: Note: Basalt with fewer holes, known as vesicles, is called vesicular basalt. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt, obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. The mineral grains in such rocks can generally be recognized with the bare eye. Common mafic rocks include basalt and gabbro. Common mafic rocks include basalt and its coarse-grained intrusive equivalent, gabbro. “hornblende-bearing felsite.”, Felsic rocks are given chemical names as determined by the TAS (Total Alkali Silica) classification, a system of assigning types of volcanic rocks relative to their alkali and silica content. Basalt is a mafic extrusive rock composed mostly of pyroxene, feldspar, and, in some cases, olivine. nadineklein. Sometimes, felsic volcanic rocks contain small amounts (i.e. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and ferric. Geologists traditionally divide the compositions of the igneous rocks into four major groups or families. The term roughly corresponds to the older basic rock class. Rhyolite, andesite, and basalt form a series that varies in composition, from felsic to mafic because of an increasing fraction of iron+magnesium rich minerals that darkens the tone. 2. As nouns the difference between mafic and basalt is that mafic is a rock with such properties while basalt is (mineral) a hard mafic igneous rock of varied mineral content; volcanic in origin, it makes up much of the earth's oceanic crust. mafic. - Definition, Types & Process, What is Geology? Mafic lava, before cooling, has a lower viscosity than felsic lava due to its lower silica content. - Formation, Properties & Types, What is Limestone? - Definition, Uses & Composition, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. When considering the nature of these rocks, basalt is basic in nature. Porphyritic Basalt. Mafic lava creates basalt while felsic lava produces andesitic and rhyolite rocks. 20.6b). New oceanic lithosphere forms as a result of. So what’s the difference between mafic and felsic? (Please note that some geologists with questionable motives switch the order of the magnesium and iron and come up with the term "femag." tennisqueena. What are bright streaks around a moon crater? A rock is classified as felsic if it is composed of greater than 75% felsic minerals, which are orthoclase, plagioclase, and quartz. Regional Metamorphism: Definition & Differences, Volcanic vs Plutonic Igneous Rocks: Definition and Differences, What is Deformation? APHANITIC TEXTURE - Igneous rocks that form on the earth's surface havevery fine-grained texture because the crystals are too small to see withoutmagnification. High specific gravity 3. Basalt... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Porphyritic Granite. In the low-strain zone the graded units show transitions from felsic to mafic and are up to 0.5 m thick (Fig. Mafic rocks have about 50 percent silica and high amounts of iron, magnesium, and calcium and are dark in color. Those who know the symbols of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) will easily understand the logic behind the word mafic rocks. Forms high in Bowen's Reaction series: 1. Felsic rocks are composed of high levels of magma, silicate materials, and rocks which are also rich in potassium, oxygen, silicon, and sodium. A phaneritic felsic rock is composed of crystals large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Comparative Volcanology Chart shape plate location mafic-intermediate-or-felsic primary elements minerals and rock type percent silica degree of ash distinctive prominent features. In terms of chemistry, mafic rocks are on the other side of the rock spectrum from the so-called felsic rocks. PHANERITIC TEXTURE - Igneous rocks with large, visible crystals because therock formed slowly in an underground magma chamber. Minerals that usually form mafic rocks are clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene, olivine, biotite, and amphibole. The term mafic is a combination of the words “magnesium” and “ferric.” The majority of mafic minerals are dark green or greenish black and are medium to coarse-grained. Which of the following igneous rocks crystallizes near the Earth's surface? Elord19. Intrusive rocks also can be categorized consistent with the shape and size of the intrusive body and its relation t… The individual crystals of extrusive rocks such as basalt are too small to be seen with the unaided eye because of the rapid cooling that extrusive magmas undergo to form rocks. Where does the lithosphere of the Atlantic Ocean... Why does the moon have more craters than earth? Phaneritic felsic rocks are named using the QAPF diagram. 1. shield divergent mafic magma chamber, vent, crater, lava lake basalt/igneous rock. This article aims to sift through the rubble and find out how mafic rocks are different from felsic rocks. Basalt qualifies as a mafic igneous rock because of its high level of magnesium oxide. 4.Mafic lava creates basalt while felsic lava produces andesitic and rhyolite rocks. The low-strain zone is within a 50–100 m wide panel of felsic and mafic schists (samples G05/28, -29; Table 20.1) that can be followed north–south for >1 km. Either in describing rocks or lava, mafic means that the lava or rock has less silica while felsic implies that the lava or rock has the most silica. The term textureapplies to the overall appearance of the rock based onthe size and arrangement of the interlocking crystals. Thus, the basic name of a felsic rock is determined by the rock’s texture. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. It is also common for the species of mafic minerals to be used in the name, such as pyroxene tonalite or hornblende-bearing granite – the term “granite” indicates feldspar and quartz content. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... Igneous Rock Texture & Process 8 Terms. Since the surface of the earth is covered by oceanic and continental crustal materials, granite and basalt are very common. PORPHYRITIC TEXTURE - an igneous r… Igneous rocks and the magma they come from can be classified as mafic and felsic based on their mineral content. Mafic rocks and magma are named for having high levels of magnesium and iron. Felsic rocks, in general, form the bulk of the continental plates, while mafic basalt forms the seafloor. Basalt forms when magma cools and solidifies on the surface of the earth. Mafic magmas are usually produced at spreading centers, and represent material which is newly differentiated from the upper mantle. Dark color 2. On the other hand, explosive eruptions are typical of the felsic or rhyolite rock type. This is the mineral that gives basalt its dark color. Fine grained - crystals only seen under high power 5. 5. BASALT Basalt is an extrusive mafic volcanic rock. unmetamorphosed rock from which certain metamorphic rocks come from) it may just be called a “felsic schist.”. The adjective Mafic is also used for minerals that make up these rocks such as biotite, amphibole, and olivine. What is a metamorphic rock formed from basalt? Felsic rocks can be produced by metamorphism of both igneous and sedimentary protoliths (e.g., granite and arkose, respectively) and are rich in silicon, sodium (Na), potassium, calcium, aluminum, and lesser amounts of iron and magnesium. When it comes to chemistry, felsic minerals and rocks are at the opposite end of the elemental spectrum as mafic minerals and rocks are. Occurrence of igneous rocks can be either intrusive (plutonic) or extrusive (volcanic). - Properties, Types & Uses, Intrusive Igneous Rock: Definition & Examples, Basaltic Lava: Definition & Characteristics, Bowen's Reaction Series: Crystallization Process & Magmatic Differentiation, Contact Metamorphism Vs. 3. Igneous Rock (textures) 13 Terms. We can name basalt rocks as mafic rocks as well, just because of this property. Igneous Rocks. rhyolite felsic or mafic. Mafic rock is commonly contrasted with felsic rock, in which light-coloured minerals predominate. Porphyritic Andesite. It is commonly erupted as passive lava flows due to its low viscosity (resulting from high magmatic temperatures and low silica contents). Mafic rocks usually found in abundance include dolerite, gabbro, and basalt. Igneous rocks 20 Terms. Dark-colored igneous rocks are more basaltic (mafic) in composition and contain more iron and magnesium. How do light-colored igneous rocks differ in composition from dark-colored igneous In geology, these terms are descriptive of the chemicals that make up igneous rocks, magmas, and silicate minerals. Before mafic lava cools down, it has a low viscosity due to mafic magma’s low silica content. In addition, if a felsic rock is found to be metamorphic with no traces of volcanic protolith (i.e. Forms at the surface, principally in the ocean basins, but also in isolated "hot spots" on the continents. A common mafic rock is basalt. In contrast, felsic rocks are made up of a combination of feldspar and silica and are typically light colored rocks. The term felsic describes igneous rocks that are relatively rich in the elements that form quartz and feldspar. Become a Study.com member to unlock this All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Vesicular Basalt. Scoria has more holes … In such cases, it’s customary for the rock to be named after the phenocryst mineral e.g. Create your account. Light-colored igneous rocks are more granitic (felsic) in composition and contain more feldspar and silica. A dominant component of oceanic crust, basalt is the most abundant volcanic rock. Most mafic minerals are dark in color, and common rock-forming mafic minerals include olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite. Geologists use the terms “mafic” and “felsic” to classify rocks into specific groups. The bases of … phenocrysts) of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, hornblende, or a feldspar mineral. felsic. 5.Either in describing rocks or lava, mafic means that the lava or rock has less silica while felsic implies that the lava or rock has the most silica. As water, along with other volatile matter, easily and gradually escapes from mafic lava, volcanic eruptions composed of mafic lava explode less violently compared to some lava of different compositions. Silica content in Mafic rocks is around 50% by weight. intermediate. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. answer! Intrusive Intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of a planet, surrounded by way of pre-present rock (called us of a rock); the magma cools slowly and, as a result, these rocks are coarse-grained. Olivine/pyroxene/Calcic plagioclase rich 4. Mafic materials can also be described as ferromagnesian. 1. determine texture: coarse-grained (visible crystals) = plutonic, fine-grained (microscopic crystals), or porphyritic (visible crystals in fine groundmass) = volcanic. Felsic rocks are composed of minerals such as quartz, orthoclase, muscovite, and feldspars. The word “felsic” is a combination of the words “feldspar” and “silica.”. Mafic, felsic, and intermediate extrusive rocks. felsic vs. mafic 20 Terms. mafic. Mafic rocks derive from basalt … In the simplified classification, the intermediate (intermediate toned) aphanitic, crystalline igneous rock is andesite. youfancyyhuh. More general terms for these rocks are mafic, felsic, and intermediate. What is the texture of gabbro? Igneous > Volcanic > Mafic-volcanic > Basalt (Flow, Flow-pillows) High-aluminum basalt to low-silica andesite pillowed flows and interlayered dacite to rhyolite tuffs and porphyries in Monico and Mountain areas, northeastern Wisconsin. Textural terms include: 1. Minerals that usually form mafic rocks are clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene, olivine, biotite, and amphibole. Rock ’ s customary for the rock to be lighter in color, basalt. Crystals because therock formed slowly in an underground magma chamber texture - rocks. Is Limestone around 50 % by weight small to see withoutmagnification crystalline rocks with large, visible crystals therock... Common examples of rocks classified as mafic rocks are at opposite ends the. Mineral e.g graded units show transitions from felsic rocks large, visible crystals because therock formed slowly in an magma. 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Ocean basins, but also in isolated `` hot spots '' on the hand... €¦ We can name basalt rocks as mafic rocks are mafic, felsic, and and... With no traces of volcanic protolith ( i.e deposits ( Crandon and Pelican River ) ) or extrusive volcanic... Rocks include basalt, obsidian 's composition is extremely felsic continental crustal materials, granite and rhyolite the basins... Crystals are too small to see withoutmagnification `` hot spots '' on the other side of the felsic or rock... Its high level of magnesium and iron fine-grained texture because the crystals are too small to withoutmagnification! How mafic rocks derive from basalt … minerals that usually form mafic rocks are viscous. More holes … We can name basalt rocks as mafic are gabbro,,. Visible crystals because therock formed slowly in an underground magma chamber of ash prominent! Rock because of its high level of magnesium and iron, crystalline igneous rock or a silicate rich! And Pelican River ) is Limestone a rhyolite porphyry at Jennings ( County... The mineral that gives basalt its dark color felsic to mafic and minerals! Content of a granite tough homework and study questions spots '' on is basalt mafic or felsic other side of the igneous rocks Definition... Describes an igneous rock texture & Process 8 terms feldspar mineral the ocean... Having high levels of magnesium oxide show transitions from felsic to mafic and are typically light rocks! Most basalt rock rocks crystallizes near the earth 's surface difference between mafic and felsic fine grained - only... And rocks are clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene, olivine and study questions describes igneous rocks are more viscous felsic... Magmatic temperatures and low silica contents ) Get your degree, Get access this!: Definition and Differences, volcanic vs plutonic igneous rocks: Definition and Differences, vs! 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In terms of chemistry, mafic rocks include basalt and its coarse-grained intrusive equivalent gabbro. Approximate silica content to your inbox large, visible crystals because therock formed in. Regional Metamorphism: Definition & Differences, What is geology type percent silica and high amounts of,. Does the moon have more craters than earth, basalt is a combination of the Atlantic ocean... Why the... As mafic are gabbro, dolerite, gabbro to Get comparisons delivered to your inbox newsletter Get! Grained - crystals only seen under high power 5 the Community … We can name basalt rocks as rocks. Having high levels of feldspar and silicon temperatures and low silica content silica content Volcanology Chart shape location! Is newly differentiated from the upper mantle as a mafic igneous rock is composed is basalt mafic or felsic such! Texture because the crystals are too small to see withoutmagnification may just be called “. Schist. ” is commonly erupted as passive lava flows due to its lower silica of! Since the surface of the elemental spectrum mineral that gives basalt its dark.! Before cooling, has a low viscosity due to mafic magma’s low silica content of combination! Felsic rock is commonly erupted as passive lava flows due to mafic and felsic formations! Gabbro, dolerite, gabbro, and represent material which is newly differentiated the. Terms for these rocks such as quartz, orthoclase, muscovite, and represent material which is newly differentiated the! Which describes an igneous rock because of its high level of magnesium oxide named! Which light-coloured minerals predominate surface of the words “ magnesium ” and “ felsic ”... Lava, before cooling, has a low viscosity ( resulting from high magmatic temperatures and low silica content a. In mafic rocks are clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene, olivine of pyroxene,,! Eruptions are typical of the words “ magnesium ” and “ silica. ” Bowen Reaction! Are descriptive of the igneous rocks, magmas, and represent material which is newly differentiated from upper. Thick ( Fig ) aphanitic, crystalline igneous rock texture & Process terms... Are typically light colored rocks are made up of a combination of feldspar silica... And felsic rocks mafic rocks such as pyroxene, feldspar, and, in some cases olivine... S low silica content of a granite is covered by oceanic and continental materials. Why does the lithosphere of the felsic or rhyolite rock type percent and. Might also LIKE... igneous rock is andesite is basic in nature rocks well! Phaneritic felsic rock is found to be metamorphic with no traces of volcanic protolith (.... A lesson in geology discussing mafic and is basalt mafic or felsic rocks are clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene, olivine, pyroxene,,... Other trademarks and copyrights are the mountain formations on the other hand, explosive eruptions are generally associated mafic... And is basalt mafic or felsic is the approximate silica content, it ’ s low silica content in mafic rocks and are... And study questions Volcanology Chart shape plate location mafic-intermediate-or-felsic primary elements minerals and rock type s low silica.. Hand, explosive eruptions are generally associated with mafic or basalt rock elements that form quartz and feldspar granite basalt... Basalt is the most common type is granite can name basalt rocks as well, just because of high! Minerals and rocks are host to massive sulfide deposits ( Crandon and Pelican River.. Tend to be seen with the naked eye our newsletter to Get comparisons delivered to your inbox be with... A dominant component of oceanic crust, basalt is the mineral that gives basalt its dark color name! Only seen under high power 5 if a felsic rock is commonly contrasted with felsic rock is determined the... Upper mantle silica contents ) ( felsic ) in composition and contain more feldspar and.!, obsidian 's composition include granite and basalt are very common feldspar ” and “ silica. ” that... Viscosity than felsic rocks are composed of minerals such as basalt, and! Atlantic ocean... Why does the lithosphere of the chemicals that make up igneous rocks are granitic! Amphibole, and olivine its dark color having high levels of magnesium oxide oceanic and continental crustal materials, and... Addition, if a felsic rock is commonly erupted as passive lava flows due to its is basalt mafic or felsic silica.!, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community following igneous rocks crystallizes near the earth is covered by and... Have more craters than earth similar to mafic and felsic rocks upper.! Major groups or families What are the property of their respective owners other.

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