274 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE Additional Information Information concerning a career in respiratory care is available from: • American Association for Respiratory Care, 11030 Ables Ln., Dallas, TX 75229-4593. A period of internship may also be required. For information on a career as a pharmacy technician, contact: • American Society of Health System Pharmacists, 7272 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814. Rehabilitation teachers provide instruction in personal and home management skills for normal living. Explain how health care systems are financed. The present trend is toward a buyout of substantial numbers of these smaller hospitals by large investment firms, creating large, forprofit hospital systems. EMTs may then be instructed by the hospital emergency staff to transmit vital signs and other information so that they can determine what treatment the EMTs should provide. Continued growth is also expected in community residential facilities as well as day care programs for individuals with disabilities. See Medical secretaries Shelter care homes/workshops, 60–61 Skill nursing facility (SNF), 57 Sleep studies, 303, 305 Socialized medicine, 40 Social psychologists, 252 Social Security Act (1935), 25 Social work administrators, 233 planners and policy makers, 234 role of, 230 Social workers description of work and types of, 231–234 earnings/salaries, 238 528 Social workers (continued) education and licensing requirements, 234–236 employment opportunities, 234 employment trends, 236–238 related occupations, 238–239 sources of information on, 239 work environment for, 234 Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers, 228 Society of Nuclear Medicine— Technologist Section, 320 Society of Vascular Technology, 313 Socioeconomic status (SES), role of, 12 Solo practitioners, 109 Sonographers, 221 Sources of career information, 480– 485 See also under specific job description Special education teachers, 418– 419 Speech disorders, 198–199 Speech-language pathologists and audiologists description of work, 199–202 earnings/salaries, 206 education and licensing requirements, 203–204 employment opportunities, 202–203 employment trends, 204–205 related occupations, 206 sources of information on, 206 work environment for, 202 Stress testing, 310 Surgeons, 106, 116 Surgical technologists description of work, 321–322 earnings/salaries, 325 INDEX education requirements, 322–324 employment opportunities, 322 employment trends, 324–325 related occupations, 325 sources of information on, 326 work environment for, 322 Teachers. Some optometrists teach in schools of optometry. “Training costs too much.” In one sense, the cost of training is only relative. Most laboratory animal technicians are employed by large companies. Health An Introduction Fourth Edition Anne-Marie Barry and Chris Yuill 00_BARRY_YUILL_Prelims.indd 3 6/6/2016 6:16:14 PM. Many employers, including the federal government, require college degrees for some positions. Most were in school and academic libraries; others were in public and special libraries. Activities employed by recreational therapists are as varied as the interests and abilities of the people they serve. Part B of Medicare requires a monthly premium, which was $54.00 in 1996.1 It carries a $100.00 deductible and the patient must pay 20 percent of the approved amount and limited charges above that amount. As was discussed in Chapter 5, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has addressed the need to increase the quality of health services by recommending that an increased proportion of all degrees be awarded to members of underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (Healthy People 2010). An extended curriculum to encompass these goals should be established. To acquire the requisite skills, technologists are cross-trained to handle several different 306 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE machines. Other factors that influence job growth include the degree to which the public seeks treatment for speech, language, and hearing disorders; the extent of referrals from family members, teachers, nurses, physicians, and others; the price of speech and hearing services and ability to pay for them, whether out of pocket or through third-party reimbursement; legal mandates requiring services for the handicapped; and the impact of health care cost-containment measures. Box 15215, Hattiesburg, MS 39402-5215. Nuclear medicine is a new specialty that involves tests using nuclear isotopes. In some states, hygienists administer local anesthetics and anesthetic gas; place and carve filling materials, temporary fillings, and periodontal dressings; remove sutures; and smooth and polish metal restorations. People not already trained in one of the health occupations have three options: a two-year certificate program, a two-year associate program, or four-year baccalaureate program. They receive on-the-job training. By having assistants and aides work more closely with clients under the guidance of a therapist, the cost of therapy should be more modest than otherwise. Read PDF An Introduction to Fungi (Fourth Edition) Authored by H.C. Dube Released at 2012 Filesize: 6.82 MB Reviews This publication is worth getting. Internet: http://www.opted.org. With additional training, experience, and certification, they may advance to more technical positions in laboratory animal care, such as research assistant, mid-level technician, or senior-level technologist. Some caretakers may work outdoors in all kinds of weather. Optometrists should not be confused with either ophthalmologists or dispensing opticians. Consultants engage in a wide COMMUNICATION IMPAIRMENTS 203 variety of activities. In addition, therapists move equipment and help patients turn, stand, or walk. Medicaid covers a broad range of services not covered by Medicare, acting as a supplemental insurance for the elderly and disabled. 32 THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES Health Care in the Twenty-First Century From its humble, unscientific, and often haphazard beginnings to the present multibillion-dollar industry, the U.S. health care system has undergone broad and often drastic changes. Sign Up Now! You may discover by working there and observing trained health professionals that you too can learn to accept the less pleasant parts of helping people get well. Regardless of whether studies are undertaken in a hospital or community college, prospective technicians can expect the curriculum to include most of the following PSYCHOLOGY 261 courses: basic and psychiatric nursing; general and abnormal psychology; child development and growth; mental health technology; group dynamics; general studies (English, history, mathematics); and field and practical courses (working under supervision with clients in a mental health program). They may risk noiseinduced hearing loss from ambulance sirens and back injuries from lifting patients. The educational minimum for entry into this work is a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college; however, a master’s degree is preferred in most cases. Because these requirements vary throughout the country, students should contact the local superintendent of schools or the state department of education to obtain specific information. Increasingly, technologists are being called upon to set up and monitor EEGs and evoked potential tests in the operating room. Pharmacists use these profiles to ensure that harmful drug interactions do not occur and to monitor a patient’s compliance with the doctor’s instructions—by comparing how long it takes the patient to finish the drug versus the recommended daily dosage. These include residential schools or homes for the mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically HEALTH CAREER PLANNING 85 handicapped, deaf, blind, alcoholics, and drug abusers. You can also join to the website book library that will show you numerous books from any types. As of 2012, audiologists will have to earn a doctoral degree to be certified. Supervised practice experience can be acquired in two ways. So while you look into your future as a health worker, watch the health care system carefully. They work at diagnostic machines but may also do some procedures at patients’ bedsides. For more information on clinical laboratory careers, write to: • American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science, 7910 Woodmont Ave., Suite 530, Bethesda, MD 20814. Therapists may either administer the medicine themselves or teach patients how to do so. When they follow proper methods of control and sterilization, few hazards of infection exist. The PHS is described more fully later in this chapter. 10 THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES Optimal treatment for chronic illness requires health care that is long-term and continuous—at present, health care in the United States is primarily short-term and discontinuous. In this way the student of today can prepare for a leadership role in guideline development, the political process, and national health care planning and research. Nuclear medicine technologists work in a clinical or radionuclide laboratory. State licensure requirements are available from each state’s board of pharmacy. Women with less training and education work in low-paying jobs such as nursing assistants, home health aides, housekeeping, and dietary aides. Accountability issues arise as federal oversight gives way to variable state and local data. About 90 percent of hospice patients are victims of cancer. The minor problems require little care from others, but the severe ones require increasing amounts of care and professional help. Certificate of Applied Science in General Secretarial Studies 498 APPENDIX C QUALIFICATIONS RÉSUMÉ The qualifications résumé allows you to cluster your skills and abilities and highlight your qualifications to support your career goal. It is believed that many of the elderly who make up 85 percent of the population of nursing homes would not need this type of 58 THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES care if long-term services were available in the community. As of 1999, the Council on Social Work Education had accredited more than 400 BSW programs and more than 125 MSW programs. Those who do similar work for humans include chiropractors, dentists, optometrists, physicians, and podiatrists. Many senior health information technicians specialize in coding—particularly Medicare coding—or in tumor registry. May also include grade point average (if 3.0 or higher), honors, awards, special programs, and so on. Otolaryngologists are specialists in the treatment of conditions or diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. Some states require continuing education for license renewal. Many care for both grandchildren and older family members. Pharmacy Technicians and Assistants Work Description Pharmacy technicians and assistants help licensed pharmacists provide medication and other health care products to patients. The comparison of health outcomes, cost, and quality of LTC under MCOs and under feefor-service raises myriad questions. Activities include sports, games, dance, drama, arts and crafts, music, and field trips. Most employers prefer to hire accredited record technicians (ARTs). Identify any adjunct personnel who assist the professionals with their work. Organization of the Boo k This book is organized in four parts: an introduction, an overview of health policymaking, a health policy issues section, and a discussion of health policy research and analysis. jhu.edu. When working with animals that are frightened or in pain, veterinarians risk being bitten, kicked, or scratched. In such cases, they must be licensed in the state in which they plan to work. Many employers determine general requisites before making final education or training arrangements for their employees. Others act as consultants to industrial safety programs, insurance companies, manufacturers of ophthalmic products, and other related businesses. This means that the government will not pay beyond the set fees for the identified type of illness, no matter how long the patient stays or what services he or she receives. Certificate programs also attract experienced radiologic technologists who want to specialize in radiation therapy technology or ultrasound technology. Sitting in the same position for long periods can be tiring, however, and workers can suffer wrist, back, neck, or eye problems due to strain and risk incurring repetitive motion injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome. AGING, HEALTH, AND WOMEN’S ISSUES 75 approved amount according to a fee schedule for covered services, in excess of a $100 deductible. This introduction to statistics and data analysis 4th edition answers, as one of the most enthusiastic sellers here will utterly be in the midst of the best options to review. Medicare currently covers less than one-half of their health care. Replacement needs are expected to produce additional job openings in the years ahead. Educational and Legal Requirements Dental hygienists must be licensed by the state in which they practice. This trend, especially pronounced among younger optometrists, is associated with education-related indebtedness and the high cost of setting up solo practice. Those in catheterization laboratories tend to work longer hours and may work evenings. Health careers do offer something for everyone, but too often students say “no” to health careers simply because they do not have the facts. Because most optometrists are self-employed, business ability, self-discipline, and the ability to deal with patients tactfully are necessary for success. Some training programs are available for specific types of animal caretakers, but formal training is rarely necessary for entry-level positions. Employment Trends Employment of social workers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through 2008. Work Environment Nurses generally work indoors in well-lighted, comfortable health care facilities. Those with laboratory duties make casts of the teeth and mouth from impressions taken by dentists, clean and polish removable appliances, and make temporary crowns. A Series of Books on Allied Health by States. Responsibilities: • Supervised staff including assistant, receptionist, steward, and wire operator. High school courses that are useful include health, biology, chemistry, social science, mathematics, and physics. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. There is frequently no one around to take care of the disabled or elderly who cannot cope with the tasks of daily living. As in most occupations, many openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for some other reason. Mental Health Centers Community mental health centers were greatly enhanced by the development and subsequent improvement of psychotropic drugs, a movement that began in the 1950s. However, this is expected to change as mental health programs expand throughout the nation. Health Services Managers Work Description Health services manager is an inclusive term for individuals in many different positions who plan, organize, and coordinate the delivery of health care. Earnings Physicians have among the highest earnings of any occupation. The goals of occupational therapy in public schools focus not on treatment or rehabilitation but on the resources that an individual child needs to participate effectively in the educational program. Health care practitioners will routinely serve older people in the future as part of their regular duties. Experience and good performance can lead to promotion to more responsible positions. Obstetricians work with women throughout their pregnancies, deliver infants, and care for the mothers after the delivery. Technologists microscopically examine other body constituents; make cultures of body fluid or tissue samples to determine the presence of bacteria, fungi, parasites, or other microorganisms; and analyze samples for chemical content or reaction. The consumer’s cost is generally less than in other facilities. 8. Wyman, J. R. Safety and the Security Professional: A Guide to Occupational Safety and Health Strategies. In specialty hospitals, patients are usually limited to those who have a specific illness or condition. Paraoptometrics are men and women who extend the optometrist’s abilities by performing routine and technical tasks related to visual care. Employment Trends Job prospects for formally trained technicians should be very good. Social workers also will be needed SOCIAL WORKERS 237 to help the sizable baby boom generation deal with depression and mental health concerns stemming from midlife, career, or other personal and professional difficulties. Pharmacists in hospitals and clinics dispense medications and advise the medical staff on the selection and side effects of drugs. They plan work schedules and assign duties to nurses and aides, provide 134 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE or arrange for training, and visit patients and observe nurses to ensure that care is properly carried out. Public health services deal primarily with four aspects of care: identifying diseases that cause health or debility; assessing the factors of cause and method of transmission; finding ways to control or cure diseases and methods to prevent spread; and educating the public to apply the findings effectively. They may work weekends as well as early or late shifts, depending on the facility in which they are employed. For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library’s reference section to find the names of potential sources. After the electrodes have been attached properly, the technologist sets the machine for ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGISTS, TECHNICIANS, AND ASSISTANTS 305 the type and intensity of the stimulus. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $15,710 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $35,170 per year. However, employers generally prefer applicants who are familiar with the trade, and an increasing number of trainees have some formal training in optical dispensing and fabricating. To be licensed, physicians must graduate from an accredited medical school, pass a licensing examination, and complete one to seven years of graduate medical education. AMA. A rural hospital may have two dozen beds; a hospital in a large city may have more than a thousand. They consult with all levels of management and present recommendations for developing better training programs and preretirement counseling services. Nursing has its hazards, especially in hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics. In addition, all states require that applicants pass an examination. The personnel needed for the provision of this care is another critical health issue. This fact changes the approach to the planning and financing of health care. Employment Trends Employment of EMTs is expected to grow much faster than average for all occupations through the year 2008. Solution Manual And TestBank Recommend 37. With experience and additional training, caretakers in animal shelters may become adoption coordinators, animal control officers, emergency rescue drivers, assistant shelter managers, or shelter directors. 3. The care of those who are older or disabled is inadequate in the United States, creating a growing burden and many inequities in access to health care. Most surgery is performed during the day, but some workplaces, such as emergency surgical units, require 24-hour coverage. 4. Future generations of imaging equipment are certain to be even more sophisticated than machines in use today. The student works with patients under the guidance of therapists in various areas of work and is evaluated for job performance, completion of clinical projects, and successful completion of a final examination. They should also be able to work as part of a team, have good communication skills, and be willing to perform repetitive, routine tasks. Philosophy, policies, and operation change drastically under management systems—sometimes for the better, at other times with dubious benefit. EKG technicians with advanced training perform Holter monitoring and stress testing. b. 9. In industry, and to a lesser extent in nonprofit medical research laboratories, there is growing demand for individuals who have a basic knowledge of electronics, biochemistry, or other technical subjects, as well as good communication skills and an interest in medicine and health. Physical physical therapy programs include human anatomy, and a considerable number continue in the Navy at present is! 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