social vulnerability indicators

Social vulnerability indicators help identify populations vulnerable to the negative impacts of a natural hazard. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag 8(1):3, Gall M (2007) Indices of social vulnerability to natural hazards: a comparative evaluation. Home » Social Security Guide » 11 Income Management » 11.4 Vulnerable Welfare Payment Recipient Measure » 11.4.2 Identification of a VWPR » 11.4.2.20 Indicators of vulnerability Listen 11.4.2.20 Indicators of vulnerability Click the symbol in the upper left of the map to display the Map Details and Legend. In: Birkmann J (ed) Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: towards disaster resilient societies, chapter 2, 2nd edn. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/searchresults.xhtml?refresh=t. The objective is to provide tools and information useful for understanding the potential effects of earthquakes in communities of South America. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1420309112. Accessed 12 Dec 2018, Palm R, Caruso D (1972) Factor labelling in factorial ecology. We also show that the SoVI is often misaligned with theory; increases in variables that contribute to vulnerability, like the unemployment rate, often decrease vulnerability as measured by the SoVI. Prof Geogr 65(2):312–328, Holand IS, Lujala P, Rød JK (2011) Social vulnerability assessment for Norway: a quantitative approach. Nat Hazards 40(1):43–70, Laska S, Morrow B (2007) Social vulnerabilities and Hurricane Katrina—an unnatural disaster in New Orleans. Marine Technol Soc J 40(4):16–26, Morrow B (1999) Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Subscription will auto renew annually. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(7):2301–2306, Cutter S, Boruff B, Shirley W (2003) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Link to previous interactive CDC SVI Maps. The SoVI is constructed using over two dozen variables; the specific formulation varies over time and application. Explore the CDC SVI Interactive Map. Prentice Hall, NJ, Rufat S (2013) Spectroscopy of urban vulnerability. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Hazard and Vulnerability Research Institute, Columbia, European Commission Composite Indicators Research Group (2016) What is a composite indicator? Quantitative measures of social vulnerability are widely used in research and practice. Global vulnerability indicators Füssel (2009b, 2010) examines technical weakness of aggregate indices and point out that the aggregated vulnerability indices cannot adequately consider special circumstances that make certain countries, or groups of countries, particularly vulnerable (or resilient) to climate change. Creating an index of social vulnerability to climate change for Africa, Katharine Vincent. Accessed 12 Dec 2018, Beccari B (2016) A comparative analysis of disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience composite indicators. The Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI®) 2010-14 measures the social vulnerability of U.S. counties to environmental hazards. https://doi.org/10.1080/00291951.2010.550167, Hummel B, Cutter S, Emrich C (2016) Social vulnerability to natural hazards in Brazil. https://www.scemd.org/media/1391/sc-hazard-mitigation-plan-2018-update.pdf. Why measure social vulnerability ? United Nations University Press, pp 80–106, Birkmann J, Wisner B (2006) Measuring the unmeasurable: the challenge of vulnerability. Reducing social vulnerability can decrease both human suffering and economic loss. Natural Hazards A Social Vulnerability Index for Disaster Management Barry E. Flanagan, Edward W. Gregory, Elaine J. Hallisey, Janet L. Heitgerd, and Brian Lewis Abstract Social vulnerability refers to the socioeconomic and demographic factors that affect the resilience of communities. Accessed 12 Dec 2018, Spielman SE, Folch D, Nagle N (2014) Causes and patterns of uncertainty in the american community survey. Ann Rev Sociol 6(1):433–456, Johnson D, Stanforth A, Lulla V, Luber G (2012) Developing an applied extreme heat vulnerability index utilizing socioeconomic and environmental data. Thornton, P.K. Social Vulnerability Generally speaking, social vulnerability is defined as the potential for loss or other adverse impacts. Nat Hazards 100, 417–436 (2020). Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. J Risk Res 12(1):43–58, Dunning CM, Durden S (2011) Social vulnerability analysis methods for Corps planning. Social vulnerability indicators are arguably powerful tools because they summarize … How ? •1. Palm and Caruso (1972) discuss some problems that emerged in urban studies due to the use of labels applied to cities. Adger N (2006) Vulnerability. Can Geogr 10:205–224, King D, MacGregor C (2000) Using social indicators to measure community vulnerability to natural hazards. PubMed Google Scholar. Link to previous interactive CDC SVI Maps. 2 social vulnerability assessment tools for climate change and drr programming social vulnerability assessment tools for climate change and drr programming 3 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8074–8079, Tyler S, Moench M (2012) A framework for urban climate resilience. https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.453df025e34b682e9737f95070f9b970, Article  http://www.oecd.org/std/leading-indicators/42495745.pdf, Oulahen G et al (2015) Unequal vulnerability to flood hazards: “ground truthing” a Social Vulnerability Index of five municipalities in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Vulnerability indicators can also be used when there is a disease outbreak or an emergency to identify populations who may need more help with response and recovery. Cutter et al. In its broadest sense, social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability to multiple stressors and shocks, including abuse, social exclusion and natural hazards. Social vulnerability indicators are used to identify areas with people who are more vulnerable to the negative impacts of floods. GRASP released the official CDC SVI 2018 update in March 2020. Retrieved 01 March, 2017, from https://composite-indicators.jrc.ec.europa.eu/?q=content%2Fwhat-composite-indicator, Fekete A (2012) Spatial disaster vulnerability and risk assessments: challenges in their quality and acceptance. Vulnerable people are more likely to be more affected by a hazard, and less able to cope or adapt to a hazard. Soc Sci Q 84(2):242–261, Cutter S, Emrich C, Morath D, Dunning C (2013) Integrating social vulnerability into federal flood risk management planning. The topics covered include: Age and Sex, Core Housing Needs, Immigration, Visible Minorities, Education, Employment, Income, Language, Lone-Parent Households and Mobility. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Reducing social vulnerability can decrease both human suffering and economic loss. ProQuest, Guillard-Goncalves C, Cutter S, Emrich C, Zezere J (2015) Application of Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) and delineation of natural risk zones in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. Appl Geogr 35(1):23–31, Jones B, Andrey J (2007) Vulnerability index construction: methodological choices and their influence on identifying vulnerable neighbourhoods. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Funding was provided by the US National Science Foundation (Award No. Click the Map Legend tab to display and interact with the layers comprising the map for the selected year. Glob Environ Change 16(3):268–281, Amec-Foster-Wheeler (2016) City and county of Denver hazard mitigation plan. The indicator weight is positively correlated with the dispersion of data, while the correlation coefficient between the indicator value and SVI is a measure of degree of influence of this indicator on the social vulnerability. Nat Hazards 78(3):1827–1841, Chen W, Cutter S, Emrich C, Shi P (2013) Measuring social vulnerability to natural hazards in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Social Vulnerability in Vermont Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. We caution against the use of the index in policy making or other risk-reduction efforts, and we suggest ways to more reliably assess social vulnerability in practice. Risk Anal 28(4):1099–1114, Schweikert A, Espinet X, Chinowsky P (2017) The triple bottom line: bringing a sustainability framework to prioritize climate change investments for infrastructure planning. Popul Environ 31(4):179–202, Flanagan B, Gregory E, Hallisey E, Heitgerd J, Lewis B (2011) A Social Vulnerability Index for disaster management. This yields a continuous numeric score. Evaluating social vulnerability indicators: criteria and their application to the Social Vulnerability Index. Based on statistical records of agricultural and fishery losses in 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused NT$800 million (NT$1 = $0.031) in losses in the Qigu District of Tainan. et al, 2006. GRASP led the June 2020 publication of ‘Spatial exploration of the CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index and heat-related health outcomes in Georgiaexternal icon’ in the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. How ? Conceptual framework for understanding social vulnerability. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag 4(2):5, Buckle P, Mars G, Smale S (2000) New approaches to assessing vulnerability and resilience. We show that SoVI has some critical shortcomings regarding theoretical and internal consistency. Psychol Bull 52(4):281–302, Cutter S, Finch C (2008) Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards. SoVI is a single quantitative indicator that purports to measure a place’s social vulnerability. Infrastructure measures rate the capacity of a community to withstand a natural disaster and manage evacuations and immediate repairs follow a disaster event. –Subjective indicators •4. This article analyzes, by means of a literature review of 63 articles, if and in which aspects such an indicator approach is regarded as useful by scientific studies. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 4(4):169–181, Clark D, Davies W, Johnston R (1974) The application of factor analysis in human geography. Int J Emerg Manag 4(2):269–295, King L (1966) Cross-sectional analysis of Canadian urban dimensions—1951 and 1961. Usefulness for social debate and policy Aust J Emerg Manag 15(2):8–14, Cardona O (2004) The need for rethinking the concepts of vulnerability and risk from a holistic perspective: a necessary review and criticism for effective risk management. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 3(1):59–82, Cronbach L, Meehl P (1955) Construct validity in psychological test. In fact, social vulnerability is a complex concept that can result from a set of primary vulnerabilities: economic, housing, physical, family, cultural, etc. We review this in more detail in Sect. Quantifying social vulnerability remains a challenge, but indicators and indices to measure vulnerability have been created (quantified and descriptive), ranging from global indicators to those that are applied at the community level. Such stresses include natural or human-caused disasters, or disease outbreaks. Retrieved March 1, 2017, from OECD. In this paper, we establish criteria for the evaluation of social vulnerability indicators and apply those criteria to the most widely used measure of social vulnerability, the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). Google Scholar, Birkmann J (2006) Measuring vulnerability to promote disaster-resilient societies: conceptual frameworks and definitions. Spielman, S.E., Tuccillo, J., Folch, D.C. et al. In: Berry B, Horton F (eds) Geographic perspectives on urban systems. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Investigating Social Vulnerability and Black Deaths. We have adapted this index to be relevant to the Philadelphia context. As a concept, social vulnerability describes combinations of social, cultural, economic, political, and institutional processes that shape socioeconomic differentials in the experience of and recovery from hazards. The social vulnerability analysis draws on secondary data for 2012 from Taiwan's National Geographic Information System. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. To make social vulnerability indicators more useful, this study performs an overlay analysis of social vulnerability and patterns of risk associated with national disasters. Also, the indicators of social vulnerability have … U.S. Senate Democrats referenced CDC SVI in the April 2020 report, Racial Disparities on Full Display: COVID-19 is Disproportionately Affecting Communities of Colorpdf iconexternal icon. Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: towards disaster resilient societies, chapter 1:9–79, Birkmann J (2007) Risk and vulnerability indicators at different scales—applicability, usefulness and policy implications. SoVI is a single quantitative indicator that purports to measure a place’s social vulnerability. Because it is most apparent when calamit Click the Details tab to display Map Tips, which explain how to explore the map. To facilitate advances to current practice and to allow replication of our results, all of the code and data used in this analysis is open source and available at (https://github.com/geoss/sovi-validity). Accessed 12 Dec 2018, Stevens SS (1946) On the theory of scales of measurement. Earthscan, London, pp 37–51, Chang S, Yip J, van Zijll de Jong S, Chaster R, Lowcock A (2015) Using vulnerability indicators to develop resilience networks: a similarity approach. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 62(1):122–133, Polsky C, Neff R, Yarnal B (2007) Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: the vulnerability scoping diagram. CDC Social Vulnerability Index (CDC SVI) uses 15 U.S. census variables to help local officials identify communities that may need support before, during, or after disasters. Clim Dev 4(4):311–326, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2015) Climate change in the United States—benefits of global action. SoVI 2006-2010 SoVI 2000 - 32 Variables SoVI 2000 - 42 Variables. –Objective indicators •3. Their definition is based on focus groups bringing the micro dimension of vulnerability to the table by giving the people themselves a voice to express their priority needs. Glob Environ Change 17(3):472–485, Rees P (1970) Concepts of social space. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography 65(1):1–17. US Army Corps of Engineers, Dunning CM, Durden SE (2013) Social vulnerability analysis: a comparison of tools. http://www.denvergov.org/content/dam/denvergov/Portals/428/documents/Denver%20HMP%20Public%20Review%20Draft.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.453df025e34b682e9737f95070f9b970, https://composite-indicators.jrc.ec.europa.eu/?q=content%2Fwhat-composite-indicator, https://doi.org/10.1080/00291951.2010.550167, http://www.oecd.org/std/leading-indicators/42495745.pdf, http://adapt.oxfamamerica.org/resources/Exposed_Report.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-017-0431-7, http://webra.cas.sc.edu/hvri/docs/SCEMD_Report_2008.pdf, https://www.scemd.org/media/1391/sc-hazard-mitigation-plan-2018-update.pdf, https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/searchresults.xhtml?refresh=t, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-019-03820-z. In these areas, people may be less able to anticipate, prepare for, cope with, and recover from a flood. The Statistician 23(3/4):259–281, Clark G, Moser S, Ratick S, Dow K, Meyer W, Emani S, Jin W, Kasperson J, Kasperson R, Schwarz H (1998) Assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme storms: the case of Revere, MA, USA. The social vulnerability component of SARA comprises the development of composite indicators of social vulnerability and resilience along with their robustness testing and validation. Specifically, multiple SoVI-based measurements of the vulnerability of the same place, using the same data, can yield strikingly different results. Access the newest update on the CDC SVI  Data & Documentation Download page. Indicators such as increased poverty rates, higher separation rates, higher crime rates and unemployment are all signs of vulnerable populations. Seth E. Spielman. Disasters 23(1):1–18, Ngo E (2003) When disasters and age collide—reviewing vulnerability of the elderly. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 105(3):473–495, OXFAM America (OXFAM) (2009) Exposed: social vulnerability and climate change in the US southeast, p 20. http://adapt.oxfamamerica.org/resources/Exposed_Report.pdf. For those familiar with principal components analysis, the index is constructed by summing the first n components of from PCA. This Index displays 15 U.S. Census variables at the tract level to help local officials identify communities that may need support in preparing for or recovering from disaster. •2. Calculated by dividing the number of people living in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid lands (i.e., areas with an aridity index between 0.05 and 0.65) by the total population of the country Proc Natl Acad Sci 112(17):5353–5359. Science 103(2684):677–680, Tate E (2012) Social vulnerability indices: a comparative assessment using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration, Spatial exploration of the CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index and heat-related health outcomes in Georgia, Racial Disparities on Full Display: COVID-19 is Disproportionately Affecting Communities of Color, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. PLOS Curr Disasters. EPA 430-R-15-001, p 94, U.S. Census Bureau (2013) 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. CDC Social Vulnerability Index (CDC SVI) uses 15 U.S. census variables to help local officials identify communities that may need support before, during, or after disasters. Aust J Emerg Manag 15:52–57, Kleinosky L, Yarnal B, Fisher A (2007) Vulnerability of Hampton Roads, Virginia to storm-surge flooding and sea-level rise. 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