Prince Khurram resented the influence Nur Jahan held over his father and was angered at having to play second fiddle to her favourite Shahryar, his half-brother and her son-in-law. But due to his measures in the financial and commercial fields, it was a period of general stability—the administration was centralised and court affairs systematised. This was an unusually long engagement for the time. In 1612 they got married. APJ Abdul Kalam Biography : Awards | Books | Quotes |… Contents. '[32], Mumtaz had a loving marriage with Shah Jahan. [25][26] During the intervening years between their betrothal and marriage, Shah Jahan had married his first wife, Princess Kandahari Begum in 1609 and in 1617, after marrying Mumtaz, took a third wife, Izz-un-Nissa Begum (titled Akbarabadi Mahal),[27] the daughter of a prominent Mughal courtier. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram (Persian: شهاب‌الدین محمد خرم‎; 5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name, Shah Jahan (Persian: شاه جهان‎, lit. Confined to bed, he became progressively weaker until, on 22 January, he commended the ladies of the imperial court, particularly his consort of later years Akbarabadi Mahal, to the care of Jahanara. Shah Jahan married her when she was around 19. The real graves are build at the bottom of the Taj. The body was taken to the Taj Mahal and was interred there next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.[48]. Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666) was the fifth Mughal Emperor of India from 1628 to 1658. [44] The contemporary court chroniclers paid an unusual amount of attention to Mumtaz Mahal's death and Shah Jahan's grief at her demise. The family's patriarch was Mirza Ghiyas Beg, who was also known by his title I'timād-ud-Daulah or "Pillar of the State". On January 22, 1666, Shah Jahan died at the age of 74. Due to the long period of tensions between his father and step-brother, Khurram began to drift closer to his father, and over time, started to be considered the de facto heir-apparent by court chroniclers. [30] According to the official court chronicler, Motamid Khan, as recorded in his Iqbal Namah-e-Jahangiri, the relationship with his other wives "had nothing more than the status of marriage. The post was heavily armed with cannons, battleships, fortified walls, and other instruments of war. 'King of the World'), was the fifth Mughal emperor, and reigned from 1628 to 1658. Her near and dear relatives acquired important positions in the Mughal court, termed as the Nur Jahan junta by historians. Shah Jahan (1592-1666) was the fifth Mogul emperor of India. Evidence from the reign of Shah Jahan states that in 1648 the army consisted of 911,400 infantry, musketeers, and artillery men, and 185,000 Sowars commanded by princes and nobles. Qandahari Begum was first wife of Shah Jahan. The first of fourteen children born to Shah Jahan's second wife, Shah Jahan's favourite and most influential daughter. The name "Khurram" (joyous) was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship. He was the son of Muhi-us-sunnat, the eldest son of Muhammad Kam Bakhsh who was the … [42], In 1632, Shah Jahan captured the fortress at Daulatabad, Maharashtra and imprisoned Husain Shah of the Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar. Mumtaz Mahal was a Muslim Persian Princess and Shah Jahan was the grandson of Akbar and son of Mughal Emperor Jehangir the great. Shah Jahan is also known as Shahbuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan, was a Mughal Emperor who ruled in the Indian Subcontinent from 1628 to 1658.He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir. On 25 September 1632 the Mughal Army raised imperial banners and gained control over the Bandel region and the garrison was punished.[47]. He was considered one of the greatest Mughals. He built the Taj Mahal in her memory. A niece of Nur Jahan, Arjumand was born into the inner court of the dynasty. Jahanara became the First Lady (. Upon Shah Jahan's orders several executions took place on 23 January 1628. India at the time was a rich centre of the arts, crafts and architecture, and some of the best of the architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters and writers of the world resided in Shah Jahan's empire. [2] The Taj Mahal in Agra, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World,[3] was commissioned by her husband to act as her tomb. It was a task that would take 22 years to complete: the Taj Mahal. ... Top record matches for Shah Jahan. While there, he began planning the design and construction of a suitable mausoleum and funerary garden in Agra for his wife. The Mughal Empire continued to expand moderately during his reign as his sons commanded large armies on different fronts. Born in January 1592, Shah ab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was the third son born to Emperor Jahangir; his mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Manmati (her official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilquis Makani). Life History. 233a translated by Begley and Desai (1984), p. 14. sfn error: no target: CITEREFFindly1994 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFShujauddin1967 (, "Monument of Love or Symbol of Maternal Death: The Story Behind the Taj Mahal", "Waqf board handles Muslim rulers' property", "The Myth of the Taj Mahal and a New Theory of Its Symbolic Meaning", "Trouble at the Taj by Sonja Chandrachud – review", "Guerlain recounts the enchanting Legend of Shalimar",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Articles containing Persian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2018, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Shah Jahan's favourite and most influential daughter. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra, under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). During his reign, from 1628 to 1658, the Mogul Empire reached its zenith in prosperity and luxury. She was born in Kandahar in Afghanistan hence named after that title. Shah Jahan means "King of the World", alluding to his pride in his Timurid roots and his ambitions. She was the unquistioned love of the emperor. [41] It was quite common for women of noble birth to commission architecture in the Mughal Empire, so Mumtaz devoted some time to a riverside garden in Agra, which is now known as Zahara Bagh. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, in which is entombed his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. His pre-accession coins bear the name Khurram. [citation needed], In the intervening years Khurram had taken eight other wives, among which Kandahari Begum (m. 12 December 1609) and Izz un-Nisa Begum (m. 2 September 1617), the daughters of Muzaffar Husain Mirza Safawi and Shahnawaz Khan, son of Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, respectively. Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan, Shah Jahan (شاه جهان, शाह जहाँ; 5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666) was the fifth Mughal Emperor of India.He is also known as Shah Jahan I.He ruled from 1628 until 1658. He faced Dara's army near Agra and defeated him during the Battle of Samugarh. The marriage was a happy one and Khurram remained devoted to her. [21] She was well-versed in Arabic and Persian languages and could compose poems in the latter. [35] Mumtaz's tenure as empress was brief, spanning a period of only three years due to her untimely death, nonetheless, Shah Jahan bestowed her with luxuries that no other empress was given before her. Inheritance of power and wealth in the Mughal empire was not determined through primogeniture, but by princely sons competing to achieve military successes and consolidating their power at court. While he was encamped in Baghdad, the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV met Shah Jahan's ambassadors, Mir Zarif and Mir Baraka, who presented 1000 pieces of finely embroidered cloth and even armour. Although the prince was forgiven for his errors in 1626, tensions between Nur Jahan and her stepson continued to grow beneath the surface. [39] Mumtaz was portrayed as having no aspirations to political power, in contrast to her aunt, Empress Nur Jahan, the chief consort of Emperor Jahangir, who had wielded considerable influence in the previous reign. [32] Prince Khurram feared that in his absence Nur Jahan would attempt to poison his father against him and convince Jahangir to name Shahryar the heir in his place. This fine portrait depicts one of the most significant Mughal courtiers of the early 17th century, Mirza Abu'l Hassan Asaf Khan (d.1641). They were, however, married five years after the year of their betrothal on 30 April 1612 in Agra. [9] Under his reign, the Mughal Empire reached the peak of its cultural glory. [citation needed], Mumtaz Mahal died at age 38 (7 July 1631) while giving birth to Gauhar Ara Begum in Burhanpur. She was the first wife of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. Asaf Khan also managed palace intrigues to ensure Prince Khurram's succession the throne. Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.[52]. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592 in Lahore, in modern-day Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession). [9][10] Mumtaz and her husband had fourteen children, including Jahanara Begum (Shah Jahan's favourite daughter),[11] and the Crown prince Dara Shikoh, the heir-apparent,[12] anointed by his father, who temporarily succeeded him, until deposed by Mumtaz Mahal's sixth child, Aurangzeb, who ultimately succeeded his father as the sixth Mughal emperor in 1658.[13]. [27], Princess Jahanara had planned a state funeral which was to include a procession with Shah Jahan's body carried by eminent nobles followed by the notable citizens of Agra and officials scattering coins for the poor and needy. According to economist Angus Maddison, Mughal-era India's share of global gross domestic product (GDP) grew from 22.7% in 1600 to 24.4% in 1700, surpassing China to become the world's largest. Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, died on this day, June 17, in the year 1631. She was the most influential of Shah Jahan's daughters after Jahanara Begum and sided with Aurangzeb during the war of succession. The mosque has overall 93 domes and it is the world's largest mosque having such a number of domes. Biography Edit See Wikipedia article. The name Shah Jahan comes from Persian meaning "king of the world." Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) was the emperor of the Mughal Empire in India from 1628 until 1658. [21], In 1605, his father succeeded to the throne, after crushing a rebellion by Prince Khusrau – Khurram remained distant from court politics and intrigues in the immediate aftermath of that event, which was apparently a conscious decision on Jahangir's part. Spouse (3): Izz-un-Nissa Begum She was the third wife of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. Biography of Aurangzeb, Emperor of Mughal India. Among his other constructions are the Red Fort also called the Delhi Fort or Lal Qila in Urdu, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid, the Wazir Khan Mosque, the Moti Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens, sections of the Lahore Fort, the Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar, the Mini Qutub Minar[50] in Hastsal, the Jahangir mausoleum—his father's tomb, the construction of which was overseen by his stepmother Nur Jahan and the Shahjahan Mosque. Shah Jahan. In July 1586, he married Malika Shikar Begum, daughter of Sultan Abu Said Khan Jagatai, Sultan of Kashghar. Mumtaz Mahal died while giving birth to her on 17 June 1631 in, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 15:12. Mumtaz Mahal, byname of Arjumand Banu Begum, wife of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. When Shah Jahan became emperor, he gave her the title Mumtaz … He is remembered as the builder of the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan (1592-1666) was the fifth Mogul emperor of India. This relatively quiet and stable period of his life allowed Khurram to build his own support base in the Mughal court, which would be useful later on in his life.[23]. It is believed that the mosaic work of Jagmandir inspired him to use mosaic work in the Taj Mahal of Agra. [52], The Ninety Nine Names of God are found as calligraphic inscriptions on the sides of the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal in the crypt including, "O Noble, O Magnificent, O Majestic, O Unique, O Eternal, O Glorious…". He was interred in the Taj Mahal, beside his beloved Mumtaz Mahal. Spouse: Shah Jahan. Love - certainly not. Upon his death, his son Aurangzeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. His rebellion did not succeed and Khurram was forced to submit unconditionally. [51] Since Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decorations on graves, the bodies of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan are placed in a relatively plain crypt beneath the inner chamber with their faces turned to the right and towards Mecca. [15] His mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Jagat Gosaini (her official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilqis Makani). [7] Although betrothed to Shah Jahan since 1607,[8] she ultimately became his second wife in 1612. Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, died on this day, June 17, in the year 1631. Mumtaz Mahal ([mʊmˈt̪aːz mɛˈɦɛl], Persian: ممتاز محل‎, romanized: momtaz mahal; born Arjumand Banu Begum, in Persian: ارجمند بانو بیگم‎; 27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631)[1] was the Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. His mother was Princess Nûr Jahân, a woman who had taken power over her husband during the last years of his reign, at a time when he had fallen into the grip of drugs. His first act as ruler was to execute his chief rivals and imprison his stepmother Nur Jahan. Mumtaz died while giving birth to her on 17 June 1631 in, Arjumand Banu (Mumtaz Mahal) is a principal character in, Mumtaz Mahal is a main character in Sonja Chandrachud's novel, Actress Enakshi Rama Rau played the role of Mumtaz Mahal in, Mumtaz Mahal was portrayed by actress Nasreen in, Mumtaz Mahal was the inspiration behind the popular, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 23:14. found in Quebec, Canada, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1968. Parents ate their own children. Aurangzeb, the third son, gathered a well-trained army and became its chief commander. The beauty of the monument is also taken as a representation of Mumtaz Mahal's beauty and this association leads many to describe the Taj Mahal as feminine. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, who was in deep love with Mumtaz Mahal, his lovable wife. This allowed Shah Jahan to rule his empire without contention. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (reigned from 1628 to 1658) to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal; it also houses the tomb of Shah Jahan himself. In 1612 they got married. In 1622 Prince Khurram raised an army with the support of Mahabat Khan and marched against his father and Nur Jahan. It was worked in 1653, in the memory of Mumtaz Mahal, perished spouse of Mughal sovereign, Shah Jahan.It took 22 years and 22,000 individuals to finish the Taj Mahal.. Taj Mahal History In English. [26], Though there was genuine love between the two, Arjumand Banu Begum was a politically astute woman and served as a crucial advisor and confidante to her husband. Upon the death of Jahangir in 1627, the wazir Asaf Khan, who had long been a quiet partisan of Prince Khurram, acted with unexpected forcefulness and determination to forestall his sister the empress Nur Jahan's plans to place Prince Shahryar on the throne. His successes in these campaigns led to Jahangir granting him the title of Shah Jahan (Persian: "King of the World") and raised his military rank and allowed him a special throne in his Durbar, an unprecedented honour for a prince, thus further solidifying his status as crown prince. She died unmarried. He was killed in 1661 as per Aurangzeb's orders. After Akbar's death in 1605, the young prince was allowed to return to his father's household, and thus, be closer to his biological mother. He was Jahangir’s third son. [26], Politically speaking, the betrothal allowed Khurram to be considered as having officially entered manhood, and he was granted several jagirs, including Hissar-Feroze and ennobled to a military rank of 8,000, which allowed him to take on official functions of the state, an important step in establishing his own claim to the throne. They met in their youth. [15], Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, Akbar's first wife and chief consort, that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness. She rapidly became an important member of Jahangir's court and, together with her brother Asaf Khan, wielded considerable influence. In 1607, Khurram became engaged to Arjumand Banu Begum (1593–1631), who is also known as Mumtaz Mahal (Persian for "the chosen one of the Palace"). Children: Six daughters and eight sons. The Mughal armies were unable to recapture it despite repeated sieges during the Mughal–Safavid War. She died of a postpartum haemorrhage, which caused considerable blood-loss after a painful labour of thirty hours. Mumtaz Mahal was the Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. While young, he was a favorite of his legendary grandfather Akbar the Great. [23], Mumtaz Mahal was betrothed to Shah Jahan around 30 January 1607,[6] when she was 14 years old at the time and he was 15. As a result of Prince Khurram's refusal to obey Nur Jahan's orders, Kandahar was lost to the Persians after a forty-five-day siege. It is said that his army included more than 911,400 soldiers and 185,000 horsemen. Qandahari Begum was first wife of Shah Jahan. Life; Ancestry; References; Life. [citation needed], The Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Sindh province of Pakistan (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) was built during the reign of Shah Jahan in 1647. Shah Jahān was the third son of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and the Rajput princess Manmati. [46] Mumtaz's eldest daughter, Jahanara Begum, gradually brought her father out of grief and took her mother's place at court. [28], By all accounts, Shah Jahan was so taken with Mumtaz that he showed little interest in exercising his polygamous rights with his two other wives, other than dutifully siring a child with each. Mumtaz Mahal was born on 27 April 1593 AD in a Persian Noble family. He was Jahangir’s third son. The name is also spelt Shah Jehan, or just Shahjahan. [36], Shah Jahan consulted Mumtaz in both private matters and the affairs of the state, and she served as his close confidant and trusted adviser. [citation needed], In 1612, aged 20, Khurram married Arjumand Banu Begum, who became known by the title Mumtaz Mahal, on the auspicious date chosen by court astrologers. The first occasion for Khurram to test his military prowess was during the Mughal campaign against the Rajput state of Mewar, which had been a hostile force to the Mughals since Akbar's reign. fol. [38][39] E. Dewick and Murray Titus, quoting Badshahnama, write that 76 temples in Benares were demolished on Shah Jahan's orders. Qazwini. The son of Itimad al-Dawla (Ghyath Beg), the head of Jahangir's Treasury, he was also the brother of Jahangir's favorite wife Nur Jahan and the father of Mumtaz Mahal, Shah Jahan's much loved spouse for whom he built the Taj Mahal. [citation needed]Edward S. Holden writes, "He was flattered by some, envied by others, loved by none."[31]. Jahanara Begum Sahib, Mumtaz Mahal's first daughter, voluntarily shared his 8-year confinement and nursed him in his dotage. She was the most influential of Shah Jahan's daughters after Jahanara Begum and sided with Aurangzeb during the war of succession. [16] So, when Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care, so that Akbar could fulfil his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor. His cultural and political initial steps have been described as a type of the Timurid Renaissance, in which he built historical and political bonds with his Timurd heritage mainly via his numerous unsuccessful military campaigns on his ancestral region of Balkh. Shah Jahan met Mumtaz Mahal at the age of 14, and they fell in love with each other. He becomes the fifth Mughal ruler [19], Prince Khurram showed extraordinary military talent. [24] After their wedding celebrations, Shah Jahan, "finding her in appearance and character elect among all the women of the time", gave her the title "Mumtaz Mahal" Begum ("the Exalted One of the Palace"). Regnal name: Ghiyasuddin Shah Jahan. found in Quebec, Genealogical Dictionary of Canadian Families (Tanguay Collection), 1608-1890. Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi. In addition, Khurram had two children from his first two wives. He is remembered as the builder of the Taj Mahal. gold (mohur), silver (rupee) and copper (dam). [18] Her older sister, Parwar Khanum, married Sheikh Farid, the son of Nawab Qutubuddin Koka, the governor of Badaun, who was also the emperor Jahangir's foster brother. Shah Jahan succeeded the throne after revolting against his father, Jahangir. He is known as Shah Jahân, sometimes spelled Shah Jehan, but his offi… Shah Jahan is the 5th Mughal emperor, coming after Bâbur, Humâyûn, Akbar, and Jahângîr, his father. [41] Two million died of starvation, grocers sold dogs' flesh and mixed powdered bones with flour. This often led to rebellions and wars of succession. Qandahari Begums step mother was Princess Khannum Sultan, daughter of… The young girl belonged to an illustrious Persian noble family that had been serving Mughal Emperors since the reign of Akbar. Much like his father, Jahangir, Shah Jahan was one of the most prolific gem collectors and connoisseurs of his day (figure 24). Shah Jahan and his sons captured the city of Kandahar in 1638 from the Safavids, prompting the retaliation of the Persians led by their ruler Abbas II of Persia, who recaptured it in 1649. In the immediate aftermath of his bereavement, the emperor was reportedly inconsolable. Shah Jahan was born as Shah ab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram to Emperor Jahangir and his wife, the Rajput princess Bilquis Makani (Princess Manmati) on 5 January 1592, in Lahore, Punjab (now in Pakistan). [19] Mumtaz also had a brother, Shaista Khan, who served as the governor of Bengal and various other provinces in the empire during Shah Jahan's reign. The name "Khurram" was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship. [20], Mumtaz was remarkable in the field of learning and was a talented and cultured lady. Mumtaz also patronized a number of poets, scholars and other talented persons. A niece of Nur Jahan, Arjumand was born into the inner court of the dynasty. [33] Prince Khurram succeeded to the Mughal throne as Abu ud-Muzaffar Shihab ud-Din Mohammad Sahib ud-Quiran ud-Thani Shah Jahan Padshah Ghazi (Urdu: شهاب الدین محمد خرم), or Shah Jahan. [22][full citation needed] As the third son, Khurram did not challenge the two major power blocs of the time, his father's and his step-brother's; thus, he enjoyed the benefits of imperial protection and luxury while being allowed to continue with his education and training. [48] Burhanpur was never intended by her husband as his wife's final resting spot. He was also responsible in manufacturing cannonsin huge numbers. Born Prince Khurram, he was the son of Emperor Jahangir and his Hindu Rajput wife, Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani (13 May 1573 – 18 April But according to court chroniclers, his relationship with his other wives was more out of political consideration, and they enjoyed only the status of being royal wives. However, there is no firm evidence to suggest this. In 1605, as Akbar lay on his deathbed, Khurram, who at this point of time was 13,[19][full citation needed] remained by his bedside and refused to move even after his mother tried to retrieve him. He was first lodged in Delwada Ki Haveli and subsequently shifted to Jagmandir Palace on his request. Some villages were completely destroyed, their streets filled with human corpses. Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra Fort. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, who was in deep love with Mumtaz Mahal, his lovable wife. Her aunt was the Empress Nur Jahan, and is thought to have played matchmaker in arranging the marriage. He built the Taj Mahal in her memory. He was also Khalifat Panahi ("Refuge of the Caliphate"), but Zill-i Allahi, or the "Shadow of God on Earth". Just prior to Khurram’s birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, Akbar's first wife, that … Early in adolescence, she attracted the attention of important nobles of the realm. [25], The prince would have to wait five years before he was married in 1612 (1021 AH), on a date selected by the court astrologers as most conducive to ensuring a happy marriage. Shah Jahan (Shahab-Ud-din Muhammad Khurram) turned into one of the most hit emperors of the Mughal Empire. The only child of Shah Jahan's third wife. In January 1666, Shah Jahan fell ill. After the death of Jahangir in 1627, Nur Jahan was put under house arrest and led a quiet life till her death. The third son of Emperor Jahangir, Shah Jahan was born at Lahore on Jan. 5, 1592, and was given the name of Khurram. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end when the speech exceeds 100 decibels. Rosalie Jahan. [45] When he appeared again, his hair had turned white, his back was bent, and his face worn. It is seen as an embodiment of undying love and marital devotion. Mumtaz died during her 14th delivery: This is true. Spouse(s) Edit. He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir.After winning the war of succession post the demise of his father Jahangir, Shah Jahan successfully ruled the empire for 30 years. This set off a war of succession among his four sons in which his third son, Aurangzeb, emerged victorious and usurped his father's throne. The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan. She was the daughter of Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan, a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the Mughal Empire, and the niece of Empress Nur Jahan, the chief wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor. Shah Jahan continued striking coins in three metals i.e. For example, no other empress' residence was as decorated as Khas Mahal (part of Agra Fort), where Mumtaz lived with Shah Jahan. Her real name was Arjumand Banu Begum and Nur Jahan the wife of Mughal Emperor Jahangir was her aunt. She was Princess of Persia and youngest daughter of Prince Sultan Muzzafar Hussain Mirza of Safavid dynasty and married Shah jahan on 12th December 1609. When Shah Jahan became ill in 1658, Dara Shikoh (Mumtaz Mahal's eldest son) assumed the role of regent in his father's stead, which swiftly incurred the animosity of his brothers. ShahJahan had many wifes but the most loved wife of ShahJahan is Mumtaz Mahal. Inheritance of power and wealth in the Mughal empire was not determined through primogeniture, but by princely sons competing to achieve military successes and consolidating their power at court. However, Shah Jahan first married Princess Kandahari Begum, the daughter of a great-grandson of Shah Ismail I of Persia with whom he had a daughter, his first child. [16] Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care. He survived in the war of succession. But brought up by Ruqaiya Akbar’s first wife. Mumtaz Mahal. In 1611 his father married Nur Jahan, the widowed daughter of a Persian noble. In their nineteen years of marriage, they had fourteen children together (eight sons and six daughters),[32] seven of whom died at birth or at a very young age. Taj Mahal as well the real graves of Emperor Shah Jahan and her wife Mumtaz Mahal. [45][page needed], Shah Jahan gave orders in 1631 to Qasim Khan, the Mughal viceroy of Bengal, to drive out the Portuguese from their trading post at Port Hoogly. Court intrigues, however, including Nur Jahan's decision to have her daughter from her first marriage wed Prince Khurram's youngest brother Shahzada Shahryar and her support for his claim to the throne led to much internal division. "[26][31] Likewise, Shah Jahan's historian Inayat Khan commented that 'his whole delight was centered on this illustrious lady [Mumtaz], to such an extent that he did not feel towards the others [i.e. [40], A great influence on him, often intervening on behalf of the poor and destitute, she also enjoyed watching elephant and combat fights[clarification needed] performed for the court. Dara Shikoh, Aurangzeb, Jahanara Begum, Descendants Edit. Shah Jahan. Daughter: Parhez Banu Begum (21 August 1611 – c. 1675) She was a Mughal princess, the first child and eldest daughter of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan from his first wife, Kandahari Begum.

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