The same is true of the contact of the musicians. Hence, most people believe the growing rate of atheism should be synonymous with secularism so as to create a â¦ In concurrence with Shorter (n.d.) and, Elphick (1997), this article argues that although Pentecostalism seems to be reviving, Christianity in Africa, judging by the number of people attracted to this brand of, Christianity, there is an extent to which its practices and beliefs are secular, explain the growing numbers of Christians in Africa and the growing rates of, social ill (sin in Christian parlance) in the form of wars, corruption, tribalism and, secularisation theory, reaching a conclusion, concern with proximate (this worldly) issues rather than ultimate (post-mortem), issues. Sub-Saharan Africa includes all of the States to the south of the Sahara. This article considers the contribution of the theology of retribution to the growth of Pentecostal-charismatic churches in Africa. 52 0 obj <> endobj Most important, it challenged conventional theories of secularization. The article closes with some remarks about the future of Pentecostal theological scholarship. STRUGGLES AND STRIDES: RELIGION AND POLITICS IN THE EVOLUTION OF CHURCH RELATED UNIVERSITIES IN ZIMB... MODERN/CHARISMATIC PENTECOSTALISM AS A FORM OF âRELIGIOUSâ SECULARISATION IN AFRICA. Finally, the article explores the actual achievements of Nigerian Pentecostals against the background of European secularism. the Asia, Africa, Central and South America. The study argues that land allocation in Zimbabwe benefitted the elite. The increasing discussion of "secularization" is hampered by several ambiguities. As we discuss, The inîuence of secularism in modern Pentecostal churches is, how these churches have revolutionised church music. This is done in three major sections; in the first section, an attempt to define and trace the historical development of this gospel is made while the second section tackles the public discussion of the gospel in Zimbabwe. As a body of scholarship, these articles constitute a set of strategic soundings that refine our understanding of the texture and topography of global Pentecostalism. h��Xmo�6�+�آ����`�M�bI:;[6���jḇ[���;��-�r��04ߎJ,'�+c�XI8��"\C�&� âThe Pentecostal Gospel of Prosperity and the divisive nature of, mega-church superstar men of God (Prophets) in Zimbabwe.â In, Hunt, S. 2000. âWinning ways: Globalisation and the impact of the health and wealth gospel.â. It begins with a general discussion of the term 'reverse mission' before examining the discourse of reverse mission as it is employed by Nigerian Pentecostals in Britain. 0 itself in novel ways to the requirements of post-industrial society. The third section analyses statistical data on the state of religion in South Africa, while the last section offers some concluding remarks on the relationship between modernisation and secularisation in South Africa thus far. ... South Africa at this level in 25 years. 80 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<355F717363CDE04B9E09CEB49AE50131><965B30D7981FE646A77A2BA379E17FF1>]/Index[52 53]/Info 51 0 R/Length 128/Prev 417090/Root 53 0 R/Size 105/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream The rapid growth of Christianity in Africa is well documented, This paper examines the emergence of church-related university institutions in Zimbabwe, with specific reference to Africa University of the United Methodist Church, as a significant development which testifies to the innovativeness of churches in response to social and political trends. The paper concludes that the modern Pentecostal movement is meant to address urban needs. The secular ideology of individualism in Pentecostal churches, for individual social mobility. Secularization must be distinguished from secularism. That was centuries before Jan van Riebeeck arrived in Azania on 6th April 1652. Believers are taught to strive for purity now, either be rewarded or condemned based on what they did in this life. First state, law, market, and sci-ence, then education, media, and other institutions, angels-1-million-sports-car/ (accessed 17 June 2013). Described by Cox (1995, 102) as âa religion made to travelâ, from its onset, Pentecostalism made intensive use of the media from print to electronic. â¢Religion became an integral part of colonization and later on globalization. This special issue of Religions assembles a talented group of international scholars from a variety of regions and disciplines to address contemporary developments within global Pentecostalism, a burgeoning movement that is changing the faceâand interfaceâof religion and society today. In a study, of His Presence Church in Johannesburg, South, for example, noticed that the churchâs music was characterised by a heavy âdrum, CzeglÃ©dy (2008, 297) comments: âThis unconventional choice of music was not, and its usage sends a powerfully contemporaneous message to the audience.â, Zimbabwe modern Pentecostal churches have incorporated popular music genres. Good deeds are followed by good consequences, evil deeds have bad consequences. Taking this background into account, this paper attempts to tease out the dynamics of the interaction between churches and the state. These churches make, widespread use of the media, especially the W, to make a content analysis of church literature, videos and audios posted on Y, the word secularisation itself. There are also many other, a deep division between those who want to accept that secularisation is a modern, it to be a creation by its proponents. Los. In these Churches the emphasis is on the prophetic ministry of the Church, evident in the performance of divination, healing and in predictions of the future. This applies both to individuals and to the, churches. The present study reflects on Eben Schefflerâs contributions on poverty and the poor in the Old Testament books of the Pentateuch, the Psalms and the Proverbs. Biblical Interpretation in Pentecostal Christianity, Modern Pentecostalism as an Urban Phenomenon: The Case of the Family of God Church in Zimbabwe. With it, individuals are not torn between, belonging to this world and getting ready for the world to come, as the Pentecostal, gospel emphasises blessings in the here and now. Book License. y/���f1|Նp���l�_�\-~�OA� :�O}�?��P��@�� � U��. There is competition to present the churches as modern, wealth-adorned, institutions in architecture, furnishings and in administration. values to acceptance of modern âsecularâ valuesâ. In, each case we show how traditional Christian teaching understood these concepts and, how secularism has affected (or rather accommodated into) the Pentecostal teaching, Secularism is materialistic; there is therefore less talk about immortality. He and the other settlers brought no land here on their ships. secularisation in Africa, in which we limit ourselves to Africa south of the Sahara. It attempts to address this subject without the emotional baggage that has characterized the public discussion of it in Zimbabwe. here as criteria for measuring the level of secularisation a society has undergone. With this understanding of secularisation, the paper then discusses beliefs, and practices of charismatic Pentecostal churches that this author believes make, on Zimbabwean charismatic Pentecostal leadersâ, Data on the Zimbabwean Pentecostal churches are drawn from Pentecostal sermons, and literature. Encyclopedia%20of%20Protestantism%202003.pdf (accessed 10/04/13). ), The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought (Oxford e.a. The first section of the paper discusses the origins and development of the church focusing on the life of the founder. In concurrence with Shorter (n.d.) and Elphick (1997), this article argues that although Pentecostalism seems to be reviving Christianity in Africa, judging by the number of people attracted to this brand of Christianity, there is an extent to which its practices and beliefs are secular. In carrying out this study, a socio-historical analysis and a theological approach to the data is deployed. Prosperity preachers are very much âthis-, cars, houses, successful businesses and other material possessions is not only. In the same vein, Max W, Reformation ideas and the spirit of capitalism replaced the previous medieval notion, of monasticism, giving way to simple worldliness (Bruce 1990, 18). This, as we have seen, is clear in the churchesâ, doctrine of health and wealth, in the place of music and media and in the dearth, necessarily a denial of religion, but rather a kind of temporal change, an adjustment, of religious faith to the experiences and âexigencies of an ageâ. It considers whether their presence is an indication of the re-emergence of religion as a social force in Britain. It is no surprise then that the gospel of prosperity has little room for, other-worldliness, making it possible for us to conclude that Pentecostalism is some, The inîuence of secularism in the Pentecostalsâ quest for wealth is also seen in, individualism. Issues, of Christian morality are not emphasised. Pentecostalism; religious secularisation; Zimbabwe. been discussed (Lechner n.d., Williams 2008). However South Africa registered an almost 20% drop in religious affiliation over a seven year period from 2005 to 2012. 3 Perhaps endstream endobj startxref As churches sought to expand their mission priorities by establishing universities, they had to contend with a plethora of interested entities. The chapter indentifies specific churches and church activities that are helping in uplifting the lives of the people. religion in modern times has not so much vanished as rather evolved and adapted. Studies of reverse mission sometimes measure success in terms of winning indigenous converts or adherents and consequently find migrant churches wanting. ASSIGNMENT COVER PAGE NAME: Promise Sithembile SURNAME: Mngomezulu STUDENT NUMBER: 67212034 MODULE CODE: ENG1503 ASSIGNMENT NUMBER: Traditional Christian teaching has it that believers are not citizens of this world. secularisation in such societies as Africa. 76). due course, the sacred shall disappear altogether except, perhaps, in the private realm. interpretation in Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. In addition to their substantive contributions, the authors, viewed collectively, also put on display the central attributes of a new era in Pentecostal studies, one distinguished by its productivity, diversity, range, and interdisciplinary ken. As CzeglÃ©dy (2008) says, in the case of His Presence Church in South Africa: âThe design aesthetics, the use, the themes of the sermons, etc., act as important points of reference in a community, that has consciously rejected the conventional symbolic embroidery of organised, in religious language. theory, reaching a conclusion that secularisation involves peopleâs concern with proximate (this worldly) issues rather than ultimate (post-mortem) issues. Rather it is the extent to which the society has moved from traditional Christian. South Africa is a radically polarized country, and not just in terms of race (whites make up some 9 percent of the population). Atheism has spread its wings to touch every corner of the world not only the west but Asia and Africa, two of the most religious continents in the world. But there have been antagonists to the secularisation thesis. Business talk in the form. This article discusses the concept 'reverse mission' in relation to Nigerian-initiated Pentecostal churches in Britain. The newer Pentecostal churches like Spirit Embassy of Uebert Angel have also, added rap and R&B music. Charismatic, has lost many traditional forms of organised Christian religion as they seek and, accommodate secular values in their teaching and practice. In its general usage the word refers to âthe process, (Wikipedia n.d.). Due to this proliferation of Christianity, there has been little talk of the secularisation of African societies. It concludes that globalization is setting the agenda for how mission should be done. Zimbabwean public and private media have also paid close attention, to these movements and I draw a lot of data from them. of businesses to the extent of discouraging being employed. their normal services (Gunda, forthcoming). on Secularization in Africa Abel Ngarsouledé (email@example.com) Shalom Evangelical School of Theology (ESTES), Chad It is not clear if secularization is a social phenomenon exclusive to the West or a European exception to the general religiosity of the world. The article concludes that Pentecostal churches have fully embraced media technology, in contrast to churches like the African Independent Churches that consider such technologies as trivializing Christianity. This survey is NOT representative of the general population of India. H� ў%�_�@��J�Z�Ix0�� He points out that âJudaism and Christianity can, be seen as more secular than the religions which they replacedâ. heal all kinds of diseases, including instant weight loss, cancer, HIV and diabetes. The plight of the majority of the poor is problematised so that transformation is superficially democratised with the ultimate aim of benefitting the elite. View ENG1503 ASS1.pdf from ENG 1503 at University of South Africa. That Christians are the salt and light of the, world, is no longer underlined. : Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 653. the rapid spread of Pentecostalism in the global South, communal violence in Southern Asia, the collapse of communism qua secular religion, etc. Secularization has to do with the decline of the social relevance and power of the church. The prophets of these churches claim to. This is the same, the church. The Dutch Reformed Church, it was said in apartheid South Africa, was the National Party at prayer, and indeed, given that the Bible was so fundamental to much of the legislation that governed the apartheid state, that apparently satirical description had the ring of truth. It is essential to note that Schefflerâs thrust is not an appropriation exercise, although in some places he makes reference to the âcontemporary worldâ. Rather than formal unbelief, it is a religious indifferentism induced by, the preoccupation with material things.â, the universal church, his observations are particularly true of modern Pentecostal, churches with their emphasis on individual wealth and success. It describes and analyses the origins, growth and develop-ment of this church as an urban modern, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The people of Azania whose country colonialists called âSouth Africaâ through the British imperialist Union of South Africa Act 1909; mined gold and copper in Mapungubwe as early as the 9th century. ��� ���+rQ�EF��|ހ*kB�z4��Y�0����t/h��M�v�o��_G__E3�Z�,x,�-�)l�Uވ� �����a:%�GhV�Ox��� If there is an area where religious secularisation is explicit in Pentecostal doctrine, it is the place of wealth. They are pilgrims on a journey to heaven. Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making sense of modernity. The article concludes that the current discourse on Pentecostal-charismatic churches in Africa focuses strongly on the aspects of healing and prophecy while neglecting the contribution made by the theology of retribution to the popularity of these churches.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Located within African theologies and African church history, this article maintains that the current discourse on Pentecostal and charismatic churches in Africa, as it concentrates on healing and prophecy, overlooks the role played by the theology of retribution in the growth of these churches. In the words of the, Turkish philosopher, Kuquradi, what happens in secularisation would then be a sort. The Zimbabwean Fast-Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) was a prototype of LEWIC in SA. Like music, Pentecostal use of the media shows the heavy effects of secularism. As Somerville (1998) notes, here individuals moderate their, behaviour in response to more immediately applicable consequences rather than. the rapid evolution of society has given rise to new challenges linked to the phenomena notably of family uprooting, urbanisation, unemployment, materialistic seductions of all kinds, a certain secularisation and an intellectual upheaval caused by the avalanche of insufficiently critical ideas spread by the media" (Ecclesia in Africa, 14 Sept. 1995, no. Not only are traditional media forms used, the, churches have moved on to modern media technologies like cellular phones, the, internet, street billboards and street-light advertisements, satellite broadcasting, and so on. The role of the theology of retribution in the growth of Pentecostal-Charismatic churches in Africa, Introduction to âCurrent Trajectories in Global Pentecostalism: Culture, Social Engagement, and Changeâ, Prophecy, Divination and Gender Justice in the Lumpa Church in Zambia, Schefflerâs autopsy of poverty in the biblical text: Critiquing land expropriation as an elitist project, The Impact of Globalization on Church Mission in Zambia: Some African Perspectives: The Impact of Globalization on Church Mission in Zambia, Rather Spirit-filled than learned! Possible negative effects of media technology appropriation, such as the commodification of the Christian religion, are also discussed. Secularization in the United States is a hotly debated topic. The article argues that media technologies have allowed Pentecostal churches in Botswana and Zimbabwe to spread the gospel faster and wider. Each born-again strives to achieve the best for him/, herself in life, with only a few such churches engaging in programmes meant for the, betterment of their communities. p. 1-15. Africa and South Korea were disproportionately urban. To do so, the paper begins with a brief review of the secularisation, Against the criticism that Pentecostal churches are ripping people off their hard earned cash or other material possessions, this chapter argues that, although this criticism may be true of some churches, it is not all Pentecostal churches that can be so accused. modern Pentecostal churches. It is believed that RE focussed on the study of multiple religions in one classroom meets the needs of changing societies. The political factor was crucial in the new developments because of the government's perceived need to maintain its hegemony, and so consideration of the new phenomenon went beyond the enactment of appropriate legal instruments. Celebration Church, boasts of the largest and, so far, the most expensive church building in Harare, while, UFIC of Emmanuel Makandiwa is constructing a competing church hall in both, speaks volumes about the place of wealth in this church. For Casanova (1994), the discourse on secularisation stands on two legs; one deals, tenets of secularisation were summarised by Mills (1959, 32-33) in the following, the Reformation and the Renaissance, the forces of modernization swept across the globe, and secularization, a corollary historical process, loosened the dominance of the sacred. The third section outlines the key features of the gospel as it manifests itself in Zimbabwe followed by a conclusion. Concurring with James Amanze (2013), the article argues that the rapid growth of Christianity in Africa is to a large extent due to its engagement with prophecy and divination. CzeglÃ©dy (2008, 306) noted that the advertisements of Pentecostal, churches in the form of charts and billboards have become so sophisticated âin a, way that is both reminiscent of and equivalent in standard to corporate/commercial, artworkâ. This doctrine, about heaven and hell, rewards and punishments in the post-mortem has all but, of secularism on Pentecostal theology. But interestingly, as Mbiti wrote this in 1969, three years earlier, in 1966, Samarin (1966, 288-297) had noted the observation by some sociologists, of this âprophecyâ: âSo far from the African being inherently, religious, secularism is rapidly becoming a more generalised phenomenon in the, African continent, spreading from a small circle of privileged individuals to a whole, society undergoing a spectacular evolution.â, South Africa, unlike in western Europe, secularization has been accompanied, not, by a decline in religious devotion, but by a dramatic rise.â, and again that Pentecostalism, especially charismatic Pentecostalism or what I call, modern Pentecostalism, is the fastest growing type of Christianity in Africa (Marshall, 1992, 7-32). If we use numbers to make the, judgment, it may be true that religion is growing in strength in Africa. What existed before colonialism remains a mooted question. Like in the, the eighth century Hebrew Bible prophet, people can throng places of worship as a. matter of routine, yet without any religious convictions. The housing shortage, the multiplicity of the means of transport and communication, the economic problems, fashion, education, urban, political and social structure, influence of western culture on urban life, individualism all these factors have secularized the urban outlook. In India, surveys were conducted in three states with large Christian popula - tions (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Meghalaya), and in areas within these three states known to have particularly high concentrations of Christians. The key element in most sociological ac-counts of secularization is the idea that, over the last several centuries, institutions in the West have be-come differentiated. â¢Religion has been a major feature in some historical conflicts and the most recent wave of modern terrorism. People can now seek the kingdom, 319-320) have noted that the availability of consumer goods enmeshes people into, worldliness. This chapter unpacks the Gospel of Prosperity to shed more light and possibly bring clarity to this subject for continued discussions within and across Christian and non-Christian groupings in Zimbabwe and beyond. However, paper argues that Pentecostalism rather presents some form of religious secularism, in Africa. h�bbd```b``� "�A$�u��,^fۀ�#`�Drh��|�YL��MH�����A$� known for preaching the gospel of prosperity. 39 East African Case Studies 45 Djibouti 45 Ethiopia 47 From Axum and the Ethiopian Empire to the Dergue 47 Th e EPRDF, Ethnicity, Nationalism and Religion 50 Th e Present Situation 53 Eritrea 54 Sudan 57 Islam in pre-Independence Sudan 57 Independence and the North-South Conï¬ ict 60 Th e CPA and Darfur 65 Â© 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. This is followed by a look into biblical, The past twenty to thirty years in the history of Zimbabwean Christianity have witnessed the emergence of a new breed of Pentecostalism that tends to attract the middle and upper classes urban residents. Shorter (n.d.) notes that the current secular world is driven by neo-, whereby success is calculated in terms of economic growth, not in the equitable, sharing of wealth. Download PDF Viewer. Mashau (2009, 108-126), in referring to evangelical, Christians, says the tragedy with this is that Christians can be in the majority, yet they, will never have a direct impact on society. This article examines the role of Prophecy and divination in the success of the Lumpa Church of Alice Mulenga Lenshina in Zambia. Request full-text PDF. The second section focuses on the teach-ing and practices of the church. They have, however, taken. The article concludes that Nigerian Pentecostal churches are to some extent a social force in Britain and it suggests that the adoption of a broader conception of mission, which includes civic engagement, enables a more nuanced assessment of their achievements, at least as far as the British context is concerned. They believe in blessings and curses that affect the present life (Phiri 2008:96; ... 13 and 14;Swanson 2013)-especially the articles on Korean shamanism.An intriguing question here is whether Pentecostalism in this guise, rather than disconfirming secularization theory, might be one of the forms that secularization is taking in the developing world. involves peopleâs concern with proximate (this worldly) issues rather than ultimate, (post-mortem) issues. This process of secularisation has brought South Africa into line with the majority of â¦ It is argued that the poor rural communities in Zimbabwe continue to languish in poverty in a country endowed with abundant natural resources, including land. of wealth and wealth creation is the language of the members of these churches. ����e�s�^�ľ�"'-��g�H�:)�/�$�\m``��0��&�30�y` �8� theâmainly Christianâdenominations and the processes of secularization are helpful. There, is a general positive economic growth in the country and the Pentecostal gospel, of prosperity has been found palatable. These events had a profound impact on the study of religion. - a progressive secularization in various forms and different areas of life, - increased interest in non-material values, the meaning of life, a renewal of religious life and new forms of religiosity, especially in the younger generation, - the formation of extra-religious spirituality. The Pentecostal churches explored in this paper are well-. South Africa, unlike in western Europe, secularization has been accompanied, not by a decline in religious devotion, but by a dramatic rise.â It has been noted time Burgess, R. 2011. âBringing back the Gospel: Reverse mission among Nigerian Pentecostals in, Elphick, R. 1997. âIntroduction: Christianity in South African history, Africa: Political, social and cultural history, Gerloff, R. 2008. âChurches of the Spirit: The Pentecostal/Charismatic Movement and, Contribution to the Renewal of Christianity.â, Gunda, R. Forthcoming. Marshall, R. 1992. âPentecostalism in Southern Nigeria: An overview, impact on African Christianity and the revival of traditional religion.â. 104 0 obj <>stream The dancing, the jumping and the singing are therefore, has explained this development by saying âthe church must provide those things that. He further, observes: âConsumer materialism is nowadays the most common cause of, secularism. At the end of colonisation in the 50s and in the 60s, Africa was supposed to shape its newly independent states and societies around the Western model.