Following the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the existing 1.1" (28 mm) quad mount and .50 caliber machine guns were determined to be inadequate against modern aircraft, and their replacement by 40 mm Bofors and 20 mm Oerlikon weapons was accelerated. Base-fuzed tracer round, with self-destruct due to tracer burn-through after 2 second flight (1000m range). I have to do serious research to obtain accurate information. Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Twenty-Nine Memo to CNO. West German paratrooper Kraka "Quad" with 20mm autocannon. Non-locking, simple blowback designs are commonplace in much lighter weapons, such as small-caliber semi-automatic pistols. The solution came from an unlikely source; Germany. Nose fuze, no tracer, with self-destruct. Very unusually for a high-powered autocannon, the Oerlikon and its derivatives feature blowback operation: the bolt is not locked to the breech of the gun at the moment of firing. No locking is required, as with such low-power cartridges the static inertia of the bolt or bolt and slide - the physical tendency of heavy components to resist rapid acceleration - is adequate to ensure that the projectile has left the muzzle and the gas pressure in the barrel is down to a safe level before the breech opens (while the bolt spring also resists the opening of the breech, in practical terms its contribution is too small to be relevant). 251 and normally unarmored Sd.Kfz. CIWS stands for Close-In Weapons System. Contents . The Japanese Navy similarly used their copy of the FF, designated the Type 99 Mark One cannon on a number of types including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero. Rheinmetall then started an adaptation of the C/30 for Army use, producing the 2 cm Flak 30. 20mm Suomessa - Aseet ja ampumatarvikkeet (20mm in Finland - Weapons and Ammunition). The straight sides allows the case to slide back and forward in the cylindrical chamber. The original source articles used to produce this single combined version state different companies for the manufacture of the various models. It provided a useful increase in firepower over the .50 cal machine gun when adapted and fitted to some aircraft. To facilitate this, the Oerlikon's chamber is longer than needed to contain the cartridge, and the front-end of the bolt, which is the same diameter as the case, actually enters this extended chamber behind the cartridge before firing. Production started in 1941 and entered service in 1942. The Royal Canadian Navy popularized the use of the Oerlikon gun as an anti-ship and anti-submarine gun - while it was not effective against the armour of most larger ships, it was used extensively and effectively against U-Boats, and on the decks of larger ships. , This unique chamber and bolt design necessitates the use of a characteristically shaped cartridge: the case has straight sides, very little neck, and a rebated rim. Synergistically with this, a second advantage of this unusual arrangement is that after firing the bolt and case have a short, but significant, distance to travel rearwards before the bolt-end re-emerges and the case in turn begins to leave the chamber; and this in combination with the deceleration provides sufficient time for gas pressure to drop to the necessary safe level. Official Description: These modern British battleships have very heavy armour, able to withstand all but the largest enemy guns, as well as enough firepower to sink any ship they come across. Autocannon Short 125mm Gatling Dual 180mm Dual 425mm Quad 800mm Repeating Cannon 150mm Light 220mm Vulcan Dual 650mm Repeating Cannon Hexa 2500mm 200mm 425mm 800mm Artillery Long 250mm Light 650mm 1200mm Quad 3500mm Siege 280mm Howitzer 720mm Howitzer 1400mm Howitzer Hybrid Gallente/Caldari: Blaster Short Light Electron Heavy Electron Electron The FF fired a slightly larger cartridge than the AF, 20x72RB, but the major improvement in these weapons was a significant increase in rate of fire. The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German Becker Type M2 20 mm cannon design that appeared very early in World War I. 25mm Single Autocannon Mount ; Improvement Cost: 10 10 10 â S M T W T F S Helper Ship - 0 0/1 1/1 S F F F S F S Fumizuki (Kai) Satsuki (Kai/Kai Ni) Consumes: 1x 25mm Single Autocannon Mount: 6 1/2 Consumes: 1x 25mm Single Autocannon Mount Produces: 1x 25mm Twin Autocannon Mountâ +5: 10 â¦ Their first test gun was a re-â¦ Later in the war, they also equipped fighters including the Zero with the Type 99 Mark Two, a version of the more powerful and faster-firing Oerlikon FFL. 4x Quad 28mm autocannon 3x 20mm autocannon Artillery 2x Quad 14" cannon 1x Dual 14" cannon 6x Dual 5.25" cannon. It became famous in the naval anti-aircraft role, providing an effective defense at short ranges (in practice up to 1.5 km) at which heavier guns had difficulty tracking a target. All Oerlikon guns imported from Switzerland, in 1940, were mounted on various gun carriages to serve as light AA-guns on land. The Oerlikon was also used as the basis for the Polsten gun, designed by Polish engineers in exile in the United Kingdom. The original Flak 30 design was developed from the Solothurn ST-5 as a project for the Kriegsmarine, which produced the 20 mm C/30. level 1. In a typical single-barrel naval version, it is free-swinging on a fixed pedestal mounting with a flat armored shield affording some protection for the crew. During World War I, the German industrialist Reinhold Becker developed a 20 mm caliber cannon, known now as the 20 mm Becker using the Advanced Primer Ignition blowback (API blowback) method of operation. The 20 mm weapons had always had weak development perspectives, often being reconfigured or redesigned just enough to allow the weapons to find use. The Navy approached Bofors about the development of a more capable replacement. The FF weighed 24 kg and achieved a muzzle velocity of 550 to 600 m/s with a rate of fire of 520 rpm. The purpose of this development was to improve the performance of the gun as an anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon, which required a higher muzzle velocity. In-box reviews. The effective vertical range was 2,200 metres. However, it had some problems with jamming in the ammunition feed. A handful of corvettes were fitted with the weapon toward the end of the war, but it appeared more commonly on frigates and destroyers at the time. The cannon is aimed and fired by a gunner using, in its simplest form, a ring-and-bead sight. The Flak 30 (Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II. Automatic weapons are typically limited to roughly 100 rounds per minute per barrel to give time for the heat to dissipate, although this can be exceeded for short periods if the firing window is brief. An improved version known as the 1S followed in 1930. The 1930s were a period of global re-armament, and a number of foreign firms took licenses for the Oerlikon family of aircraft cannon. Polsten 20mm Quad. During World War II, twin and quadruple Oerlikon mounts were developed, both for army and for navy use. Bofors 40 mm Anti-Aircrft Autocannon The Bofors 40 mm gun is an anti-aircraft autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish defense firm of AB Bofors . West German paratrooper Kraka "Quad" with 20mm autocannon. hide. Squadrons in the Far East were equipped exclusively with Oerlikons. The tracker traversed and elevated the mount manually using two handwheels. It was one of the most popular medium-weight anti-aircraft systems during World War II, used by most â¦ A wide variety of 20x138B ammunition was manufactured to be used in 2 cm Flak weapons; some of the more commonly used types are listed on the following table. The armored cab option is very reminiscent of the cab armors often used in half-tracks like the Sd.Kfz. These were the principal armament for its Light Anti-Aircraft squadrons in North Africa, the Middle East, Italy, and North Western Europe, until the introduction of the Bofors 40/L60 40mm gun from 1943, although many squadrons retained a mix of guns until the end of World War 2. In 1927 the Oerlikon S was added to the existing product line. Posted by 3 months ago. In 1935 it made an important step by introducing a series of guns designed to be mounted in or on the wings of fighter aircraft. Nevertheless, compared to guns with a locking mechanism a fairly heavy bolt must be employed; while to give this heavy bolt sufficient forward speed, a large spring is required (and Oerlikons, distinctively, have this component wrapped around their barrels.) 226. Because the Treaty of Versailles banned further production of such weapons in Germany, the patents and design works were transferred in 1919 to the Swiss firm SEMAG (Seebach Maschinenbau Aktien Gesellschaft) based near Zürich. In January 1944, the 21st Army Group decided that only 20 mm Polsten guns would be used as a standard light gun to simplify supply. A modern Oerlikon cannon (Oerlikon 20mm/85 KAA) on a Royal Navy warship, "The Machine Gun", Volume4, George M.Chinn., page 12. When raised, the weapon measured 307 cm (10 feet 1 inch) high. The Phalanx CIWS , is the correct name in this case. In order to provide airborne and mountain troops with AA capabilities, Mauser was contracted to produce a lighter version of the Flak 38, which they introduced as the 2 cm Gebirgsflak 38 (2 cm GebFlak 38). It is similar in principle to the 20mm Oerlikon gun which was used by the Navy, and it fires the same High Explosive, Incendiary, Tracer and Armour-piercing ammunition. A "piece chief" designates targets and the feeder changes exhausted magazines. The French firm of Hispano-Suiza was a manufacturer of aircraft engines, and it marketed the moteur-canon combination of its 12X and 12Y engines with a H.S.7 or H.S.9 cannon installed between the cylinder banks. Since 20mm is the cutoff point where most nations switch from bullets to shells, it has come to also generally be the cutoff point between weapons classified as a machine gun or a cannon. Developed in the final days of World War I, Germany sold the rights to a 20 mm caliber cannon to a Swiss firm that eventually became the Oerlikon 20 mm. Generally similar to the C/30, the main areas of development were the mount, which was fairly compact. 52 trailer, and could be towed behind a variety of half-tracks or trucks, such as the Opel Blitz and the armored Sd.Kfz. The Oerlikon became best known in its naval applications. The Army in particular felt the proper solution was the introduction of the 37 mm caliber weapons they had been developing since the 1920s, which had a rate of fire about the same as the Flak 38, but fired a round with almost eight times the weight. Strategy [ edit | edit source ] The FFL of 30 kg fired a projectile at a muzzle velocity of 675 m/s with a rate of fire of 500 rpm. The production of the first British-made Oerlikon guns started in Ruislip, London, at the end of 1940. The Vought F-8E Crusader is a supersonic single-engine, single-seat fighter developed for the United States Navy, and exported to France. Initially the Oerlikon was not looked upon favorably by the Royal Navy as a short-range anti-aircraft gun. Lack of tracer and high density of incendiary allows heavy filling load. The Half-track sâ¦ Tracer round, with no fuze or self-destruct function. Prototypes were built and tested in late 1942 and operationally deployed on several Elco PT Boats in the Mediterranean. Bofors produced a gun that was a smaller version of a 57 mm (6-pounder) semi-automatic gun developed as an anti-torpedo boat weapon in the late 19th century by Finspong. In 1924 SEMAG failed. However, it was the original SS gun which was widely adopted as anti-aircraft gun, being especially widely used by The gun was eventually abandoned as a major anti-air weapon due to its lack of stopping power against heavy aircraft and against Japanese kamikaze attacks during the Pacific War. Just a few weeks before the Fall of France, the Oerlikon factory approved manufacture of their gun in the United Kingdom, under licence. Designated with FF for Flügelfest meaning "wing-mounted", these weapons were again available in the three sizes, with designations FF, FFL and FFS. The water-cooled version was used almost exclusively by the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard. Also check if the product actually matches! Different nations and services operated a number of mounting types for the same basic gun. The gun went into service in 1944, and was used well into the 1950s, among other uses, on Cromwell tanks and early model Centurion tanks. Used cartridges are ejected from below the breech. , The C/30, featuring a barrel length of 65 calibres, had a fire rate of about 120 rounds per minute. The first guns were delivered to the Royal Navy in March or April, 1941. It was widely produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, and many versions are still in use today.. History and Design. In Germany, Ikaria further developed the FF gun as the MG FF, firing 20x80RB ammunition. Each of the four mounted guns had a separate magazine that held only 20 rounds. As the craft approached the Czech-made weapon's position, their explosive rounds tore into it while the .51 tracers fell short of the ACH-47. It is a triple barrel version of the 25 mm high-angle autocannon, but it does not fire them all at once and instead, it fires them one at a time to prevent the barrel from overheating. History Edit. The US Navy operated a quad mount developed for PT boats by Elco Naval Division, Electric Boat Company, called the Elco "Thunderbolt" Mount. Locally produced derivatives of the Oerlikon cannon were used much more extensively, on aircraft, on ships and on land. It featured a dramatically simplified mount using a tripod that raised the entire gun off the ground, which had the side benefit of allowing it to be set up on an uneven surface. The term Vierling literally translates to "quadruplet" and refers to the four We don't know about any in-box reviews for this US Navy 20mm Single Autocannon & Quad 1.1-inch AA Gun (#WA19) from FineMolds. The Oerlikon FF was installed as armament on some fighters of the 1930s, such as the Polish PZL P.24G. This is the attainable rate of fire; the sustained rate of fire is significantly lower due to rapid heat buildup and barrel erosion. A trigger in the right-hand grip controls fire. The RAF Regiment made extensive use of Oerlikon guns in the anti-aircraft role. Similar German installations of the MG FF were not successful. Non-locking, simple blowback designs are commonplace in much lighter weapons, such as small-caliber semi-automatic pistols. In Kriegsmarine use, it was fitted to U-boats, Siebel ferries and ships to provide short-range anti-aircraft defence, and was also employed in fixed installations around ports, harbours and other strategic naval targets. Autocannon: Quad Colt Mk.12 (20mm) AAM: R.550 Magic (Infrared) The F-8E Crusader is a French fighter aircraft available to NATO forces. It was largely superseded by the Bofors 40 mm gun and the 3"/50 Mark 22 gun. Based off of a French designed 25 mm autocannon, this was a twin barrel version of the domestically produced 25 mm High-angle Autocannon. For close-range defense Archons are equipped with a 20mm remotely operated chaingun. A 20mm cannon-firing North American M61 Vulcan in real-life. The 20 mm caliber is a specific size of cannon or autocannon ammunition. manually aimed by a gunner. The Oerlikon gun was installed aboard United States Navy ships from 1942, replacing the M2 Browning machine gun, which lacked range and firepower, and largely superseding the 1.1"/75 caliber gun, which was heavier and had less mechanical reliability. The Royal Navy managed to smuggle out the necessary drawings and documents from Zürich. The term Vierling literally translates to "quadruplet" and refers to the four 20 mm autocannon constituting the design. è»è¦èã«ãè£ åããã¾ããã This is the shipborne quadruple version of â¦ This gun used a 400-grain (26-gram) charge of IMR 4831 smokeless powder to propel a 2,000-grain (130-gram) projectile at 2,800 feet (850 meters) per second.. This meant it could keep enemy aircraft under fire over longer time spans. In API blowback weapons, the firing pin fires the cartridge while the bolt is still traveling forward so that the gas pressure has to overcome the forward momentum of the bolt as well, before it can push it to the rear. Ammunition feed is typically by a 60-round drum magazine on the top of the gun.  Other kinds then in existence included numerous practice rounds (marked Übung or Üb. 7/1 and Sd.Kfz. In the air, the Ikaria MG FF was used as armament on a number of German aircraft, of which the most famous is the Messerschmitt Bf 109. 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