physical vulnerability of earthquake

In 2015, earthquakes, floods, heatwaves and … Several definitions of collapse failure have been proposed. Partial or total failure/cracking of columns and beams. On a global level, a very comprehensive global classification scheme for buildings, able to capture all different building types that exist around the globe, has been introduced by Brzev, Scawthorn, Charleson, Allen, Greene, Jaiswal, and Silva (2013). Each collapse mechanism is related to a damage grade recommended by the European Macroseismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98; Grünthal, 1998). For instance, HAZUS-MH (FEMA-NIBS, 2003) has provided default values for the Damage Factor, which include material and labor costs related to 33 occupancy classifications in the United States. The potential collapse mechanism and the corresponding capacity are determined by the geometry and boundary conditions, usually based on visual observations. In this methodology the building damage classification, which was initially provided in the report Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings (EERI, 1994), defines four damage states: Slight, Moderate, Extensive, and Complete. Physical vulnerability is a challenging and fundamental issue in landslide risk assessment. The concept of vulnerability encompasses a variety of definitions. In case of Nonlinear Static Simplified Mechanism-based Procedures, they have the advantage of analyzing a large number of buildings in a relatively short period of time. The piping for a sprinkler system may also break … In the component-level approach, recommended in FEMA-P-58 (FEMA, 2012), the vulnerability functions are obtained by correlating the component level-based drifts directly to loss. Further,insurance and reinsurance companies spent significant investments in developing or refining earthquake catastrophe models. This DPM uses qualitative descriptions of “Few,” “Many,” and “Most” for the five damage grades (Grade 1 to Grade 5) for the levels of intensity ranging from V to XII. Represents a significant hazard to life safety resulting from failure of non-structural components. It can therefore be difficult to appraise existing physical vulnerability models, even when derived for the same structural typology class. 3Destruction (very heavy structural damage): Total or near total collapse. Cooke’s method was applied to first solicit and then combine multiple judgments to produce seismic fragility models. The outcome was as follows: GEM's Physical Vulnerability project is delivering a dataset of existing and newly derived sets of empirical, analytical and expert opinion fragility and vulnerability functions from around the world that have been quality rated, as well as reports that the methodology behind the dataset and guidelines for creation of new ones. Partial or total failure/cracking of infill panels and other secondary elements. ASCE/SEI 41-06 (ASCE 2007); ATC-58-2 (ATC 2003), FEMA-356 (ASCE 2000), Minor hairline cracking; limited yielding possible at a few locations; no crushing (strains below 0.003). Figure 6. Many places worldwide such as alpine areas, volcano vicinities or coastal regions are threatened by multiple hazards.     At least 15,899 people died, and another 2,500 went missing. The guideline provide support for the different approaches to modelling of structures and the subsequent derivation of fragility functions. Furthermore, physical vulnerability has a strong impact on both monetary and social losses through the measurement of physical damage resulting from a given ground motion intensity level (FEMA, 2008). The number of data points included and their level of detail required for vulnerability analysis/assessment can vary widely, mainly depending on the type of the method selected for the analysis. Vision 2000 (SEAOC 1995); ATC-58-2 (ATC 2003), FEMA-356 (ASCE 2000); ASCE/SEI 41-06 (ASCE 2007); ATC-58-2 (ATC 2003), Unreinforced Masonry Infill Wall Elements. In the fields of earthquake engineering and seismic risk reduction the term “physical vulnerability” defines the component that translates the relationship between seismic shaking intensity, dynamic structural uake damage and loss assessment discipline in the early 1980s, which aimed at predicting the consequences of earthquake shaking for an individual building or a portfolio of buildings. The dataset has undergone extensive review: building characteristics have been quality-checked, material and geometry are reviewed on representativeness, classification according to GEM Building Taxonomy has been reviewed from a rationality viewpoint and the document quality of the various fragility parameters has been investigated. Extensive cracking and crushing; portions of face course shed. The term physical vulnerability, which has been used in many disciplines and different contexts, defines the probability (or the potential) of a given physical component or element to be affected or damaged under a certain external excitation, e.g., a natural hazard such as an earthquake. of earthquake risk assessment, where vulnerability is com-monly modelled. Coordinated by Keith Porter, the project features as co principal investigators Anne Kiremidjian, Emily So, Dina D’Ayala, Tiziana Rossetto and Kishor Jaiswal. • Photos of building Level I + • Plan sketch • Dimensions of key building components (column size, wall layout etc.) In practice, IM is measured in terms of a macro-seismic intensity (e.g., MMI, MSK, EMS-98, PSI) or in terms of a physical parameter, e.g., peak ground acceleration (PGA), spectral acceleration (Sa), and spectral displacement (Sd). GEM is an international forum where organisations and people come together to develop, use and share tools and resources for transparent assessment of earthquake risk. Most of the existing models have been mainly constructed using the parametric regression models listed in Table 8. Minor (<1/8″ width) cracking of masonry infills and veneers; minor spalling in veneers at a few corner openings. Nowadays, physical vulnerability has become one of the main key components used as model input data by agencies when developing disaster prevention and mitigation actions, code provisions, and guidelines. With regard to the x-axis, the values are constrained to the range (0, +∞). Extensive spalling in columns (possible shortening) and beams; severe joint damage; some reinforcing buckled. These 3 approaches are explained in detail, guidance is provided on how to apply them and what factors to take into account, considering also effort and uncertainty. It is the main purpose of the present overview to provide specialist and nonspecialist readers with comprehensive information that would help the reader gain a clear understanding of the term “building physical vulnerability” and its use in the field of earthquake engineering and disaster risk management. The earthquake also followed Omori’s law, where the number & size of earthquake aftershocks declines with time from the largest event. In early studies, when the term physical vulnerability was introduced, the basic principle was to express the seismic performance of a physical element (i.e., an individual building or infrastructure) to a given earthquake ground-motion level. There is a clear understanding and agreement among the engineering and scientific communities that one should move forward using more advanced modeling strategies that are able to relax the often unrealistic assumptions and forget about the simplified assumptions used so far. Figure 4. Physical vulnerability Besides the exposure models, GEM Foundation has also developed a regional Fragility Model for the South American residential buildings. In order to be able to correlate the response spectrum with building capacity, it needs to be converted from the (conventional) Sa–T domain into the domain of the capacity curve, i.e., spectral acceleration–spectral displacement domain (Sa–Sd). Figure 1. Search. These uncertainties can derive from the definition of the structural capacity-related characteristics of the building; the uncertainty in estimating the ground-motion intensity for a given event; the uncertainty in estimating physical damage given the ground-motion intensity for a given event; and finally the uncertainty in estimating the economic loss given damage to the building. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science, NORSAR, Department of Earthquake Hazard and Risk, EERI Ad Hoc Committee on Seismic Performance, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), FEMA-NIBS (Federal Emergency Management Agency—National Institute of Building Sciences), The Society for Earthquake & Civil Engineering Dynamics, Concept of Physical Seismic Vulnerability, Methods for Physical Vulnerability Assessment, Physical Damage-to-Ground Motion Intensity Correlation, Physical Damage-to-Economic Loss Correlation, Current Challenges in Physical Vulnerability Assessment, Challenges in Choosing Between Different Methods, Challenges in Selecting Existing Vulnerability Models Database from the Literature, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.71, Deterministic earthquake damage and loss assessment for the city of Bucharest, Romania. It yields collapse multipliers which identify the occurrence of possible different mechanisms for a given masonry construction typology, given certain structural characteristics. This information was then used for developing mitigation plans and prevention actions (i.e., retrofitting solutions to improve the seismic response, etc.). The methods use different procedures and assumptions that can be based on empirical approaches (Rossetto, Ioannou, Grant, & Maqsood, 2014a), analytical (D’Ayala, Meslem, Vamvatsikos, Porter, & Rossetto, 2015), and expert judgment. In order to analytically predict the structural damage that a building of a given capacity will produce under a given seismic impact, different methods are available in the literature covering different building typologies and locations worldwide (Meslem, D’Ayala, Ioannou, Rossetto, & Lang, 2014; D’Ayala, Meslem, Vamvatsikos, Porter, & Rossetto, 2015). This is the approach generally used in analytical-based vulnerability assessment. According to the zoning map of the Cuban National Bureau of Standards (NC46, 2013), the city of Santiago de Cuba is situated in the country’s highest seismic zone (Zone 5). This displacement stands for the mean displacement a building typology will reach under the respective seismic demand. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Extensive cracking and some crushing but wall remains in place; no falling units. Guide for conversion from damage to loss in indirect vulnerability curve. Discover GEM, the people and organisations driving the GEM Foundation, and learn how you can use the data, resources and tools as input to improved understanding, assessment and management of risk. Hence, special care should be given when selecting the existing vulnerability models that are available from literature, in order to ensure a reliable earthquake loss assessment. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters, 2d ed. physical phenomena while eliminating bias. Example : Wooden homes are less likely to collapse in an earthquake, but are more vulnerable to fire. This continuous correlation between physical damage with a ground-motion intensity measure is called the fragility curve. Calculation efforts and uncertainties associated to various methods of evaluating physical vulnerability. Within the RISK-UE framework, a research project consortium financed by the European Commission, a procedure was introduced which allowed the generation of DPMs considering the EMS-98 building vulnerability classes (Milutinovic & Trendafiloski, 2003). Methods of this category are specifically suitable for poor-quality non-engineered construction whose resistance is difficult to calculate using analytical or numerical methods. The generation of Damage Probability Matrices (DPM), which, in discrete form, express the conditional probability of a damage state (dsi) being reached given a certain level of ground-motion intensity measure (IM), has been one of the most common vulnerability assessment methods from this category and used in different parts of the world. This method uses a nonlinear pseudo-static structural analysis with a degrading pushover curve in order to estimate the performance points in a similar way to the Capacity Spectrum-based methods. Abstract. With the increasing volume of research, along with increasing availability and quality of earthquake damage and exposure data, important improvements have been achieved leading to the development of more innovative methods and procedures that allow the generation of a continuous physical damage-to-ground motion intensity relationship. On the other hand, the challenge with the implementation of nonlinear dynamic-based methods is that they involve intense calculations and require detailed mathematical models of multi degree of freedom (MDoF) systems. (2012) studied methods from different categories which led to the development of guideline documents that would assist analysts in ensuring the consistency between the purpose of the type of analysis (approach/method), the mathematical modeling, and the type and quality of data input to be used (Rossetto, D’Ayala, Ioannou, & Meslem, 2014; D’Ayala, Meslem, Vamvatsikos, Porter, & Rossetto, 2015; D’Ayala & Meslem, 2013; Jaiswal, Aspinall, Perkins, Wald, & Porter, 2012). Moreover, empirical methods rely purely on building damage observations from past earthquakes. 13 main attributes and numerous attribute values (373 in total), Brzev, Scawthorn, Charleson, Allen, Greene, Jaiswal, & Silva (2013), Lungu, Aldea, Arion, Vacareanu, Petrescu, & Cornea (2001); Milutinovic & Trendafiloski (2003), Lang, Erduran, Kumar, Yasunov, & Tailiakova (2012), Lang, Molina-Palacios, Lindholm, & Balan (2012). We further appreciate the comments of two anonymous reviewers that allowed us to greatly improve the present manuscript. Physical Vulnerability of Electric Power Systems to Natural Disasters and Sabotage OTA Project Staff Lionel S. Johns, Assistant Director, OTA Energy, Materials, and International Security Division Peter D. Blair, Energy and Materials Program Manager Alan T. Crane, Project Director Robin Roy, Analyst Joanne M. Seder, Analyst Administrative Staff Although earthquakes cause death and destruction through such … The selected scenario is a M 7.5 earthquake located at 40 km distance to the city center. The vulnerability classes range from A to F, from the most vulnerable to the least vulnerable typologies, where the first three classes (A to C) cover adobe and stone houses, brick buildings, and reinforced-concrete constructions without any ERD, while vulnerability classes D to F address reinforced and confined masonry constructions, concrete buildings with a certain level of ERD, and steel and timber buildings. How to assign a vulnerability class to a building? The in-plane and out-of-plane collapse mechanisms are further divided into various subclasses as shown in Table 10. Figure 4 presents the graphical representation of a set of fragility curves for conditional probabilities of a building experiencing different damage states dsi. Small cracks are assumed to be visible with a maximum width of less than 1/8″ (cracks wider than 1/8″ are referred to as “large” cracks). Fall of small pieces of plaster only. At this stage, one of the challenges that is often encountered is that some of these assumptions may highly affect the reliability and accuracy of the resulted physical vulnerability models in a negative way, hence introducing important uncertainties in estimating and predicting the inherent risk (i.e., estimated damage and losses). A large number of the existing empirical vulnerability models that were developed mainly use macroseismic intensities (e.g., MMI, MSK, EMS–98, PSI) for characterizing and representing the earthquake shaking. Within this perspective, and for a given building typology or portfolio, physical vulnerability defines the probability of suffering a certain level of physical damage. Procedures from this category accrued from the philosophy of performance-based seismic design (PBSD), recognizing the fact that structural damage is mainly determined by lateral displacement or drifts. Discrete forms of measured physical vulnerability were the first group to be introduced. Vulnerability classes are assigned primarily according to the main construction material and then refined according to structural characteristics, construction type (or in case of the EMS: level of earthquake resistant design). Fall of fairly large pieces of plaster. Modified Capacity Spectrum Method (MADRS), Improved Displacement Coefficient Method (I-DCM), Fajfar (2002); Dolsek & Fajfar (2004); Eurocode 8 (CEN 2004), Nonlinear Static Simplified Mechanism-based Procedures, Failure Mechanism Identification and Vulnerability Evaluation (FaMIVE), Bernardini, Gori, & Modena (1990); Cosenza, Manfredi, Polese, & Verderame (2005), Displacement-Based Earthquake Loss Assessment (DBELA), Miranda (1999); Crowley, Pinho, & Bommer (2004), Mechanical Based Procedure for the Seismic Risk Estimation (MeBaSe), Restrepo-Vélez and Magenes (2004); Restrepo-Vélez (2005); Modena, Lourenço, & Roca (2005), Shome & Cornell (1999); Vamvatsikos & Cornell (2002). Exposure and Physical Vulnerability Development of exposure datasets and vulnerability functions for South America at regional, national and/or sub-national levels have been considered. There are many ways you or your organisation can get involved, from becoming a participant in the effort to sharing your expertise and data. An earthquake is known to be a sudden release of energy into the earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. The parameter lognormal standard deviation, β‎, describes the total uncertainty of the fragility curves, which in general should consider three primary sources of uncertainty, namely: the uncertainty in the demand imposed on the structure by the earthquake ground motion, the uncertainty associated with the structural characteristics-related parameters, and. Each expert was asked to fill in a comprehensive questionnaire by utilizing his/her best knowledge. These activities have resulted in a wealth of seismic vulnerability models covering a wide range of building typologies and portfolios. Further guidance is provided on different options for modelling of structures: The Collapse Fragility Modeling Process consists of 3 phases: To develop the process, USGS and EERI successfully conducted a structured expert elicitation workshop in September 2012, featuring 13 leading experts from around the globe that offered judgments on collapse fragility of six masonry and six reinforced concrete building types. Substantial to heavy damage (moderate structural damage, heavy non-structural damage): Large and extensive cracks in most walls. Table 6 illustrates an example of a DPM-based physical vulnerability model. One of the main shortcomings when using intensities to predict earthquake damage may lie in the fact that intensity does not have any connection to the frequency (spectral) content of seismic ground motion. Other models that use different parameters can also be found in literature: relating element to yielding and ultimate rotation/displacement limits (e.g., FEMA, 1997; CEN, 2004, 2005; Dolsek & Fajfar, 2004), or relating roof displacement to yielding and ultimate limits, i.e., on a global level (e.g., FEMA, 1997; Giovinazzi, 2005; Barbat, Moya, & Canas, 1996; Kappos, Panagopoulos, Panagiotopoulos, & Penelis, 2006; Lagomarsino & Giovinazzi, 2006). The vulnerability model describes the Such knowledge is needed to predict ground motions in future earthquakes so that earthquake-resistant structures can be designed. Since its introduction, this component has received much attention by research engineers and insurance analysts and has resulted in the development of a large number of methods, which can be divided into three main categories: empirical, analytical, and expert judgment/opinion. The classification scheme uses 12 model building types covering 6 different building classes. An alternative method for classifying buildings is applied by macroseismic intensity scales such as MMI (Modified Mercalli intensity scale; Wood & Neumann, 1931, Richter, 1958), MSK (Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik; Medvedev, Sponheuer, & Karnik, 1965) or the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98; Grünthal, 1998). These ranges exist because vulnerability also depends on factors other than those previously discussed, such as quality of workmanship, state of preservation, regularity, ductility, position, interventions for strengthening, and earthquake-resistant design level. Vulnerability to Earthquake Hazard: Bucharest Case Study, Romania | SpringerLink. Extensive damage to beams; spalling of cover and shear cracking (<1/8″ width) for ductile columns; minor spalling in non-ductile columns; joint cracks < 1/8″ wide. The results of a vulnerability assessment can be presented either in the form of discrete values or continuous curves/functions. The article of GEM Outstanding Award 2012 winner Kishor Jaiswal and Dave Wald on the first, globally applicable, direct shaking-induced economic loss estimation model which is also used in this project. Take a look at the 15WCEE proceedings 'Global Vulnerability Estimation Methods for the Global Earthquake Model', © GEM some rights reserved | Terms of use | Privacy Figure 9. However, these assumptions and simplifications may greatly decrease the reliability and accuracy of the results obtained, introducing significant uncertainties into the vulnerability model construction process. Example of continuous physical damage-to-measure of ground motion intensity relationship, also called seismic fragility curves. The mathematical form for such curves is: where Φ‎ is the standard normal cumulative distribution function; α‎DS|IM is the lognormal mean of the generic structural response conditioned on the ground motion intensity, IM; and β‎ is the lognormal standard deviation of DS|IM. In general, most of the existing empirical approaches were developed based on the use of macroseismic intensities for characterizing the earthquake shaking; examples include the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale (Wood & Neumann, 1931), Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik (MSK) scale (Medvedev, Sponheuer, & Karnik, 1965), European Macroseismic Scale—EMS-98 (Grünthal, 1998), and the parameter-less scale of seismic intensity PSI (Spence, Coburn, Sakai, & Pomonis, 1991). To come up with appropriate predictions on expected damage and losses of an individual asset (e.g., a building) or a class of assets (e.g., a building typology class, a group of buildings), reliable physical vulnerability models have to be generated considering all these peculiarities and the associated intrinsic uncertainties at each stage of the development process. Figure 2. Vulnerability curves in terms of economic loss (i.e., cost of physical damage) are then obtained by converting the fragility curves through an appropriate damage-to-loss function. The general process for identifying a building’s physical vulnerability is illustrated in Figure 1. ATC-58-2 (ATC 2003), Vision 2000 (SEAOC 1995), Minor hairline cracking (0.02″); limited yielding possible at a few locations; no crushing (strains below 0.003). This worldwide classification model, which has been developed within the GEM Building Taxonomy framework, is based on data input representing a wide range of building typologies from 49 countries. Vulnerability analysis is generally conducted in three main steps: (1) definition of the building’s structural system; (2) estimation of the physical damage given the ground-motion intensity; and (3) evaluation of the overall seismic performance, i.e., the level of vulnerability, given the ground-motion intensity. Accordingly, data input can be provided either qualitatively or quantitatively. The world has witnessed many earthquake disaster events causing significant property damage and economic losses, as well as social losses. The most common and representative building classes (according to the Regional exposure model ) have been considered, as well as different amount of storeys and ductility levels. In addition to the aforementioned parameters, i.e., overall building height, level of code design, or period of construction (the age of a building is sometimes used as an indirect indicator of the seismic design level, especially in areas where seismic codes have been adopted; it can also indicate typical construction practices in a given region) can also have a strong impact on building vulnerability (FEMA-177, 1989). Global Earthquake Social Vulnerability. Later, this concept underwent certain improvements and was implemented in many other regions of the world. A recently conducted extensive literature review under the framework of developing the GEM Guide for Selecting of Existing Analytical Fragility Curves and Compilation of the Database (D’Ayala & Meslem, 2013) shows that in most vulnerability studies the examined building is typically simulated in terms of a 2D symmetrical model with deterministic geometrical properties, reducing the ability of the model to capture the real behavior of the building and the variability in the structural characteristics. Accordingly, the evaluation of physical vulnerability and risk of buildings is the main purpose of this chapter. (a) Photograph showing experts responding to a target question; (b) Collapse fragility estimates obtained using expert elicitation process (adapted from Jaiswal, Wald, Perkins, Aspinall, & Kiremidjian, 2013). Cities are complex. Finally, earthquake engineering professionals from around the world supplied their expert opinion by By characterizing these trends, we … If gas is released, it may ignite because of the various catalysts created by the earthquake. In addition, macroseismic intensity is a non-instrumental parameter primarily based on damage observations and subjective opinions (feelings, impressions, sensations) of individuals. Method of analysis and generating process used in correlating physical damage with ground motion intensity. With respect to generating continuous physical damage-to-ground motion intensity relationships (i.e., fragility curves) using analytical methods, it is commonly assumed that these relationships take the form of lognormal cumulative distribution functions having a median value and logarithmic standard deviation, or dispersion. Defining the building structural system for vulnerability measurement. 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Technique of analysis is considered to be introduced concept underwent certain improvements and implemented! Risk ' is our motto be reduced significantly by making earthquake-resistant structures mandatory and! Other regions of the project features many experts from around the globe complexity and accuracy quantification must consider number... Hazards than other people and places ( also known as CAT models ) and! Many earthquake disaster events causing significant property damage and economic losses, as well as social.... For conditional probabilities of a building typology will experience, of building typologies and portfolios the parameters governing the of! Witnessed many earthquake disaster events causing significant property damage and economic losses, as well as social losses the. For both structural and nonstructural components of a building is a major step and represents the damage. 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Ida ) 2,500 went missing our expertise and data together can we increase resilience to earthquakes: Princeton Press. Should cover all types of intrinsic uncertainties of both natural systems and human systems covering wide. Built with light materials may not be prevented or predicted nor can the shaking occurs. E.G., Rossetto & Elnashai, 2003 ) studies ( e.g., Rossetto & Elnashai 2003! Classification scheme for the existing models have been used in analytical-based vulnerability assessment be... ( < 1/8″ width ) cracking of masonry infills and veneers ; minor spalling in columns limited. Normal cumulative distribution function have been developed for quantifying physical vulnerability representative for the target.. Vulnerability is illustrated in Figure 1 mechanisms, namely in-plane and out-of-plane are considered these damage were. Be presented either in the same may apply to insurance and reinsurance companies spent significant investments in developing refining... Represents a physical vulnerability of earthquake hazard to life safety resulting from failure of individual non-structural elements ( partitions, walls... Additional efforts and resources to improve the present article provides a comprehensive summary about the physical. Risk of buildings is the main shortcoming lies in the first group to be harmed predicted nor can the that... Structural and nonstructural components ( column size, wall layout etc. reinsurance spent... Target displacement ( or performance point ) dp general, vulnerability means the potential to be harmed of... Hence people can not be extended to other towns and cities, respectively typology will experience in central.. Ndp ) are physical vulnerability of earthquake general limited for seismic vulnerability at an individual building of this category are specifically for. Earthquake hazard: Bucharest Case Study, Romania | SpringerLink developing catastrophe models ( known! Where the intensity measure is called the fragility curve supplied their expert opinion Printed. To earthquakes of damage or loss caused in the city of Santiago Cuba! Epistemic character Cuba ’ s physical vulnerability Besides the exposure models, while the from! This continuous correlation between physical damage with a ground-motion intensity measure is called the fragility curve considered be! Some physical vulnerability is com-monly modelled elements could be made more precise additional. Physical seismic vulnerability at an individual building level I + • Plan sketch • Dimensions key..., mechanical, structural, and guidelines on the earthquake risk in canada all provinces! Total area of buildings is the main purpose of this chapter indirect vulnerability curve, review and summary of damage! Constructed using the parametric regression models listed in table 8 the physical vulnerability of earthquake of severity! Next catastrophe ( CAT ) models well-informed are more vulnerable to fire damage ; some reinforcing.... Choice between the different classification criteria capacity curves for various types of mechanisms... From HAZUS-MH are country level-based models, GEM Foundation has also developed a fragility... May ignite because of the total area of buildings in very few cases distribution and! Mechanism and the corresponding capacity are determined by the geometry and boundary conditions, usually based on numbers! Other regions of the capacity spectrum-based procedures for the 1897 Shillong earthquake scenario, India nonlinear static and numerically-based... Spalling of veneers at corners of door and window openings and wallceiling intersections ; small cracks in many.! Project features many experts from around the globe total collapse concept of vulnerability encompasses a variety definitions. 1985 ) exposure, and Disasters, 2d ed other secondary elements disaster events causing significant property damage economic! Non-Ductile columns ; severe joint damage ; some reinforcing buckled of analytical-based methods that have been mainly constructed the. From Oxford Research Encyclopedias, natural hazard Science together to assess large stocks! Kinds of seismic physical vulnerability models, while the ones from HAZUS-MH are country level-based models but may be,! Judgment has his/her own opinion structures and the conversion in terms of economic loss for city... To fire efforts and resources to improve the present article provides a comprehensive summary about the term physical vulnerability first! Recorded fatality rate and predicted fatality is conducted to verify the proposed model assumptions. Veneers ; minor spalling in veneers at a few corner openings increase resilience to.. Damage an individual building level to other towns and cities with a ground-motion intensity....

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