, February 15, Dr. Andrew de la Garza will introduce his latest book, The Mughal Empire at War: Babur, Akbar and the Indian military revolution, 1500-1605. , The Mughals ultimately failed to establish sea power in its modern form, but this lack would not be a deciding factor in the downfall of their Empire. Attempts by the Mughals to create a uniform system of taxation and military obligation among so many minority rulers at the rural level, comprising nearly ninety percent of the subcontinent's population, had to go through the clan council, a body made up of a network of "village chiefs" known as _________, who conducted most of the real business. Terms & Conditions | Akbar was successful in his quest; at the end of his rule, the Mughal Empire encompassed most of the northern, western, and central regions of India. The same proposition held for cavalry. It took the Mughals nearly a month of enormous effort to bring guns to bear against the fort, but once in place they swiftly breached its walls.  The absence of sea power in its modern form was not a significant factor in the fall of the Mughal Empire. With one stroke the Mughals had acquired a powerful new squadron of war galleys, complete with experienced and highly capable crews. He left behind as legacies his memoirs (Babur Namah ), several beautiful gardens in Kabul, Lahore, and Agra, and descendants who would fulfill his dream of establishing an empire in Hindustan. Once the Mughals gained control of Gujarat, they had effective control of these roots. , Babur, a seasoned military commander, entered India in 1526 with his well-trained veteran army of 12,000 to meet the sultan's huge but unwieldy and disunited force of more than 100,000 men. Waging War – Tactics and Operations . The successes and failures of the Mughal navy, however, do not make a good basis for their arguments. , Industrialization and mass production in Europe started to eclipse Mughal production in global trade by the late 18th century. Babur's victorious Central Asian army used a combination of traditional horse cavalry tactics and new-fangled cannons; the cannon fire spooked Lodi's war-elephants, which turned and trampled their own army in their hurry to escape the fearsome noise. , The Mughals, Safavids, and the Uzbeks, despite being Muslim themselves, faced tough opposition from the Afghans. Many historians have viewed the Mughal Empire as relatively backward, the Emperor the head of a traditional warband from Central Asia, with tribalism and the traditions of the Islamic world to the fore, and the Empire not remotely comparable to the forward looking Western European states of the period, with their strong innovative armies implementing the "military revolution". Babur's forces, using military tactics, technology and a strong cavalry, crushed the Muslim Lodi dynasty and defeated a Hindu confederation by 1527.  Both rulers expanded the empire greatly and were able administrators. , Because all government officials were part of the army, military and political power went hand in hand for the Mughals. Increasingly, the Mughal emperors grew less interested in good governance and more interested in maintaining their lavish lifestyle and expensive court. The Mughal Empire came under the control of the British by the end of the 18th century.  In their ever-greater dependence on land revenue, the Mughals unwittingly nurtured forces that eventually led to the break-up of their empire.  4. The perennial question of who was the greatest of the six "Great Mughals" receives varying answers in present-day Pakistan and India. The Military administration or the Mansabdari system was the backbone of the Mughal Empire which started in its crude form from Zahir-ud-din Babur till its refined form in the reign of Akbar.  The process of expansion was the process of incorporation.  This inability to confront pirates at their staging areas in Madagascar and East Africamuch less their home ports in the New Worldhighlighted the most significant failure of the Mughal navy. Shah Jahan also issued letters of marque and reprisal to English captains, authorizing them to attack any Portuguese vessels deemed a threat to Mughal shipping. D Despite this impressive military technology, the Mughals fell behind the Europeans. During his fifty-year reign, the empire reached its greatest physical size but also showed the unmistakable signs of decline.  At Akbar’s death in 1605 the empire extended from Afghanistan to the Bay of Bengal and southward to what is now Gujarat state and the northern Deccan region (peninsular India). All these reforms greatly increased productivity and revenue of the Mughal Empire, leading to prosperous subjects with abundance of food. , The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Afghan Lodi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat, where they used gunpowder for the first time in India. The weakening of military power rendered the decline and fall of the Mughal Empire inevitable. A Mughal Military Revolution?   The early Mughal Empire was heavily emphasized, giving the reader information of what the early rulers did and showing how they ruled the Mughal Empire at their time of reign.   The Mughals neither produced nor employed firearms as well as the Europeans or the Ottomans did. Once Akbar demonstrated that ability at Chitor, he and his successors rarely had to complete another siege until the Deccan campaigns.  Happy to have trade come to them, the Mughals welcomed the establishment of European trading forts along the coast. The Mughal economy supplemented agricultural output with international trade. From a logistic perspective, Mughal forces surrounding fortresses were often as much besieged as the garrisons inside. In popular news jargon, Mughal or Mogul denotes a successful business magnate who has built for himself a vast (and often monopolistic) empire in one or more specific industries. The Mughals produced a high-quality, lightweight, cotton fabric, which, as Europeans found out, was more comfortable to wear in the summer than wool or linen. , Born on October 15, 1542 in Umarkot, India, and enthroned at age 14, Akbar the Great began his military conquests under the tutelage of a regent before claiming imperial power and expanding the Mughal Empire. The overall organization of the navy closely resembled that of the Mughal army. , The desire for a new Mongol empire, now allied with Islam, created opportunities for military action to unite and settle the nomadic tribes Chaghatay, leading to the rise in the fourteenth century of _________, or Tamerlane. Through this trade, silver from Spanish America and global foodstuffs poured into the Mughal Empire. It was the weakest and poorest branch of the Mughal military. Under Jahangir, the Mughal Empire remained a "war state" given to aggressive conquest and territorial expansion. The Mughal empire continued to expand and to deepen its administrative control from 1556 until 1689. During Akbar's reign, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth.  Between the 15th and the 18th centuries, the economy of the Mughal Empire revolved around agriculture and trade. Military technology, especially gunpowder, was improved greatly during the centuries of Mughal reign.  Mughal armies thus had to depend on forage.  His reign marked the cultural zenith of Mughal rule, but his military expeditions brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. The production of desirable agricultural goods, and the taxes on those goods, made the Mughal economy soar.   /1/ To a large extent this is true, and normally the vakil was less effective than the wazir, who controlled the purse, but theoretically the vakil was the king's deputy and even the wazir referred to him whatever was "beyond his own ability."    The Mughals were more successful than the British in maintaining a permanent presence in Afghanistan.   Babur, a descendant of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and also of the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), was a military adventurer, a soldier of distinction, and a poet and diarist of genius, as well as a … Cotton was one of the many lucrative trade goods that, along with agricultural production, made the Mughal economy boom.   The navy of the Mughals was very weak as compared with the Europeans.  18 As the Empire expanded and reached the sea, the need for a navy became clear. /3/ The principal categories of Mughal mansabdars, however, were three: those in command of ten to four hundred were commonly styled mansabdars (officers); those in command of five hundred to twenty-five hundred were amirs (nobles); and those in higher ranks belonged to the category of umara-i-kabir or umara-i-azim (grandees). The frontiers of the Mughal Empire would not reach the sea for decades after its foundation in 1526, but the rudiments of a navy would nonetheless emerge very quickly. At Ranthambor in 1569, Akbar besieged Surjan Hada, the ruler of the small Rajput principality of Bundi. In this system each officer worked for government was a military officer, responsible for recruiting and maintaining his quota of horsemen. The image of India as a peaceful society inhabited by seekers after spiritual enlightenment, now epitomized by the figure of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, has never fit the reality of the subcontinent. The medieval period had been dominated by South Indian naval powers, most notably the Chola Empire based in Tamil Nadu and the kingdom of Sri Vijaya, which arose from Indian colonies in Malaysia and Sumatra. Instead the officers called mansabdars provided much of the troops. Learn how your comment data is processed.  The Babur started to establish this empire, Babur fight with the Ibrahim lodhi and after first battle of Panipatt Babur got throne from Ibrahim lodhi, this start the establishment of the Mughal empire. Persian poets, artists, scholars, and officers--including her own family members--lured by the Mughal court's brilliance and luxury, found asylum in India. The Mughals used the mansabdar system to generate land revenue. Tools of War - Weapons, Equipment and Technology 4. Post was not sent - check your email addresses!    Though the gunpowder empire of India did exploit military technology at first, the Mughal Empire eventually fell to European imperialism and colonialism. Tools of War - Weapons, Equipment and Technology . His policies were carried out by his son but the later Mughals were not so enthusiastic as their ancestor and yet their power continued to decline and ultimately the Europeans were able to grab power from Mughals and they also carried out the same state policies of Mughals but with certain modification. In each instance Mughal galleys blocked the approaches, keeping Company ships at bay while ground forces routed the English flying columns and then closed in on their home bases. Babur, the first Mughal Emperor, assembled large fleets of boats and small shipsas many as 400 at a timefor his campaigns in the Ganges valley. At the same time that the Mughal Empire was losing power, England was beginning its Industrial Revolution. The most prominent features of the administrations of the different rulers have already been noted, but a general view is necessary in order to understand the Mughal contribution.   The first Mughal ruler was a talented warrior who also possessed a taste for art and music, but he was a poor administrator. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account.  , Like many Central Asian armies, the mughal army was horse-oriented. , Like all empires, the three Muslim Empires, the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals have faced this inevitable state. The reason may have been that the water supply in Fatehpur Sikri was insufficient or of poor quality, or, as some historians believe, that Akbar had to attend to the northwest areas of his empire and therefore moved his capital northwest. In successive campaigns from 1610-1612, the Mughals consolidated their control of Bengal by crushing the local monarchs Musa Khan and Pratapaditya. Supporting War - Logistics and Non-Combat Operations 7.   World History Connected | Vol. He expanded the military, gained more territory for the empire, and produced one of the best-performing economies in the world. Starting with how the Mughal Empire started and what leaders formed this great empire. Technically, they still ruled as agents of the Mughal Empire, but were in practice exercising complete power. Although its origins, like the Mughals themselves, were in the armies of central Asia, its essential form and structure was established by the empires third emperor. 1.  Built an army and played down the foundation of the Mughal empire.  Learning War - Organization, Recruitment and Training 6.  The emerging Mughal navy was influenced by a complex web of economic, military, technological and cultural exchange that connected not just the various regions of India but also East and Central Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. The Mughal revenue system was based on the division of the empire into subas or governorships, sarkars or districts, and parganas, consisting of number of villages which were sometimes styled mahals. reverse-curve bow which we find both in Mughal normative texts on military practice and in actual descriptions of the daily round of Mughal armies.’ Mughal swords were curved swords, effective only … File:Islamic Celestial Globe 01.jpg. After inconclusive negotiations punctuated by occasional clashes, he declared a state of war with the Empire in 1688.  Mughal expansion thus depended on the ability to take fortresses. Neither alone would have guaranteed superiority on the battlefield; the combination did. South Asia’s environment did not favor the production of quality horses; cavalry forces had to depend on their import from the northwest, Iran and central Asia, and the west, Arabia. Conducting a siege in the Deccan or Rajasthan thus meant operating at the end of a long overland supply line, dragging guns—the Mughal force that besieged Ranthambor advanced at a pace of only three miles a day—and transporting large quantities of food and fodder as well. He recruited and rewarded Hindu chiefs with the highest ranks in government; encouraged intermarriages between Mughal and Rajput aristocracy; allowed new temples to be built; personally participated in celebrating Hindu festivals such as Deepavali, or Diwali, the festival of lights; and abolished the jizya (poll tax) imposed on non-Muslims. , A few descendants of the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, are known to be living in Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), and Hyderabad, India.  The Mughals did use elephants in war, particularly in their early campaigns, but not as their primary striking force. Under an initial treaty with the Mughals in 1616, the British first built factories; by 1765 in the Treaty of Allahabad they acquired tax raising and administrative power in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, after which the Mughal emperor became their puppet. As all empires do, the Mughal Empire faced many difficulties, and by the turn of the 19th century, had weakened significantly.  At its peak, the Mughal Empire covered over 1.544 million square miles - the second largest empire to have existed on the Indian subcontinent. By the middle of the century it had fragmented into a collection of squabbling successor statesan Empire only in name and easy prey for both regional and European aggressors. From the 15th through the 18th centuries, the Mughal Empire sustained a powerful agricultural and trade-based economy with impressive military technology. , This is very similar to the pattern that emerged in the Ottoman Empire, where the rulers grew increasingly disinterested in good governance and repeated the pattern of their predecessors, the Afghan Lodi Sultans.  To quote only one of several contemporary Muslim aphorisms: 'Wars by sea are merchants' affairs and of no concern to the prestige of kings.'"     Panikkar published India and the Indian Ocean: An Essay on the Influence of Sea Power on Indian History in 1945, on the eve of his country's independence.  The Mughal Empire is known as a “gunpowder empire.” The word “Mughal” is the Indo-Aryan version of “Mongol.” Babur was a descendant of Chingis Khan. The Mughals thus had tremendous difficulties in both maintaining and ending sieges.    Although they recognized the Ottoman claim to the title of caliph, they saw the Ottomans as just another Muslim empire like themselves, especially as they shared a similar pedigree. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. , At times, the Mughals experimented in establishing good inter-religious relations with the non-Hindu majority, employing Hindus in senior posts.  Aurangzeb's long rule renewed the Mughal trend of expanding into the Northeastern areas controlled by the Ahoms, whom he ultimately succeeded in converting into _________after a military standstill, while in other areas potentially troublesome groups were lavishly bribed into joining the Mughal fold. They dissolved the empire in 1857, having already gained control of substantial territory in India, winning the competition against the French and Dutch. Humayun, son of Babur, took over the Mughal Empire after his father. T He is the Mughal Emperor credited with spreading the Persian culture throughout the empire.  …had the support of the Mughal emperor Akbar, from the north. , The great Mughals also did not create an adequate and self-sufficient standing army, recruited and paid directly by the state. …English found the Portuguese enjoying Mughal recognition at the western Indian port of Surat. (These were replaced during British rule by the somewhat large tehsils or talukas.). The fighting forces of the great Mughals were composed of cavalry, infantry, artillery and sea and river flotillas.   Although the seat of the great Mughal Empire he founded was in India, Babur's memoirs stressed his love for Kabul--both as a commercial strategic center as well as a beautiful highland city with an "extremely delightful" climate. ( Log Out /  BEFORE following the fate of the Mughal empire under Aurangzeb's successors in the eighteenth century, it will be useful to outline the main features of administration under the four great emperors. , For most of its existence the Empire never faced a serious threat of invasion from either land or sea. , The weakest part of Mughal administration was the military organization, precisely the area where one might have expected the most efficient centralized control.  An astute ruler who genuinely appreciated the challenges of administering so vast an empire, Akbar introduced a policy of reconciliation and assimilation of Hindus (including Maryam al-Zamani, the Hindu Rajput mother of his son and heir, Jahangir), who represented the majority of the population. Every government official holding a military or civil post was enrolled in the army list and treated as the commander - real or nominal -of a specified number of horsemen.  As expected the English dominated the action on the high seas, severely damaging the Mughal merchant fleet and overwhelming even heavily guarded convoys.  Mughal merchants took these and other goods as far as Russia, as well as to Indian Ocean ports. Mughals made the Taj Mahal during Shah Jehan’s rule. The first Mughal ruler, Babur, was a talented warrior who also possessed a taste for art and music. Against the foes they faced in South Asia, these limitations made no difference; the Mughals consistently had both more and better firearms than their enemies in the subcontinent. Changing Ways of War . He left behind as legacies his memoirs ( Baburnama ), several beautiful gardens in Kabul and Lahore, and descendants who would fulfill his dream of establishing an empire in the Indian Subcontinent. , Mughal dynasty, Mughal also spelled Mogul, Arabic Mongol, Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century. Complacent in their military superiority, the Mughals failed to modernize their technology. The heavy taxes he levied steadily impoverished the farming population, and a steady decay in the quality of Mughal government was thus matched by a corresponding economic decline. The topographic locations of fortresses in South Asia eliminated the need to redesign them to resist siege artillery. If You Can Be Seen, You Can Be Killed:The Technological Increase in Killing Zone during the American Civil War. When Babur first founded the empire, he did not emphasize his religion, but rather his Mongol heritage. Ibn Hasan, the author of the Central Structure of the Mughal Empire, argues that the post was primarily for show and honor, with the vakil as the head of the nobility but not of the administration.  The Mughals had to co-opt much of this massive indigenous manpower pool.  They fell behind the Europeans in military technology only in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, when flintlock muskets sup- planted matchlocks and cast iron artillery became standard. Muhammad Salih Thattvi headed the task of creating a seamless celestial globe using a secret wax casting method, the famous celestial globe was also inscribed with Arabic and Persian inscriptions.   1. Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources.  These military tactics, however, had been out dated and made obsolete by the new tactics and strategies of the surrounding empires.    Change ), You are commenting using your Google account.  During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the Hindu Kush area was hotly contested between the Mughals of India and the powerful Safavids of Iran.  It is questionable whether the Mughals could have recouped the considerable expenses involved in creating a true blue water navy of their own. Supporting War - Logistics and Non-Combat Operations 7. U Under the Mughals The Mughal's military was comprised of infantry, cavalry, navy, elephants, and gunners. , The Mughals were quite sensible in terms of using the loyalties of their nobility unlike the sultans mostly came under the influence of their nobility and usually lost their power into their hands.  Despite this impressive military technology, the Mughals fell behind the Europeans.  They relied mainly on the technology and tactics that the Persian emperors before them had left.  In the ensuing decades the Portuguese maritime empire declined and the English and Dutch became the preeminent European trading powers in the Indian Ocean.  One of the most formidable navies of pre-colonial India was that fielded by the Mughal Empire. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. When this inclusion ended, with Emperor Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire began to lose power and stability, leading to its ultimate demise. This was the case for most of the Rajput states during the Mughal period. Naval administration is described in detail in the Ain-i-Akbari, a document that served as the official almanac of the early Mughal Empire. Mughal Empire, Mogul Empire, Moghul Empire - a derivation of the word "Mongol" - were Turkic conquerors of India who established an empire that lasted from 1526 to 1857, but held only nominal power after 1803.  Contenders for the Mughal throne were many, and the reigns of Aurangzeb's successors were short-lived and filled with strife. D. H. A. Kolff has demonstrated that Indian peasant men were normally skilled with weapons and frequently accepted military service far from their home villages. 5. 'Pajama' is a Hindi word from India during the reign of the Islamic Mughal Empire, which ruled from the 15th through 18th centuries.    The Mughal ruler at the time, Babur, sought to expand his land, and attacked Sultan Ibrahim Lodi's army at Panipat.   Over time, his half-brother took control of the Punjab and Indus Valley territories, once part of the Mughal Empire.  The Mughal navy proved to be very effective in protecting the interests and enlarging the boundaries of the state, but it achieved these goals in a manner much different than that proposed by Panikkar or Mahan. The only way that the Mughals could support so massive a military was with an equally massive military budget. , Coastal areas of the empire were guarded by the Gupta's navy.  The first leader of the Mughal Empire in India was Babur, who reigned from 1527-1530. Akbar is said to be a great emperor among the Mughals who had focused on every state institution including the defence, finance, religion and the society. A Mughal Military Revolution? Their combination of field artillery and cavalry supplanted a military system based on war elephants. , This book argues that, on the contrary, the military establishment built by the Emperor Babur and his successors was highly sophisticated, an effective combination of personnel, expertise, technology and tactics, drawing on precedents from Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and India, and that the resulting combined arms system transformed the conduct of warfare in South Asia.  , Under Akbar the Great, the empire grew considerably, and continued to expand until the end of Aurangzeb's rule. The Lost World: Change and Continuity in Mughal Military Technology 19th Century Warfare. Changing Ways of War 3.  Although the Mughals neither constructed nor conquered fortresses built or adapted to defeat siege guns, such citadels as Chitor and Ranthambor had such strong natural locations that it was extremely difficult to deploy guns …  The word Mughal formerly and properly denoted the Tatar conquerors ot both Persia and India. Following the decisive Ottoman victory over the Safavid Empire at the 1514 Battle of Chaldiran, Babur incorporated artillery, although authorities disagree about how many cannons he brought to India, Baburs artillery played a key role in the establishment of the Mughal Empire.   The Hodgson-McNeill theory isn't regarded as sufficient for the rise of these empires, but their use of the weapons was integral to their military tactics. The Mughal Empire was unprepared to deal with the threat posed by European intruders. ( Log Out / 6. Military Under the Mughal Empire By: Louie Lovelace India's military before the Mughal Empire, under the Gupta Empire, was largely comprised of mounted cavalry and archers protecting the borders. 7. Mirroring the situation on land, the Mughal navy fought a decades-long war of attrition against this enemy, only gradually gaining the upper hand. As the state became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, so did the demands for more revenue from the peasantry. The Mughals imported European military technology, but most of the weaponry was outdated upon arrival.  Every military officer and chief was given a mansab (rank) and was expected to maintain the required number of soldiers, horsemen, horses and elephants etc.  (These were replaced during British rule by the somewhat large tehsils or talukas.) Mughal emperors maintained a small standing army. , Ottoman and Roman military are both similar in the way that they both invited either janissaries for ottoman and germans for the Roman empire to join their military and serve. Mughal administrators made their way to rural areas, and along with local leaders, urged villagers to clear forests for farming and harvesting various goods for market.  The cavalry was easily the most powerful of the three branches of the Mughal army. Company squadrons would attack Mughal shipping on the high seas and raid ports and coastal towns while expeditionary forces wreaked havoc inland. , When Nadir Shah invaded India in 1739 the jazair or swivel guns employed by his troops were superior to anything the Mughals could bring against them. , The Mughals were able to effectively play European powers against one another and use diplomatic and economic pressure to induce Western navies to perform many of these services for them. This array of weapons was divided into heavy and light artillery. The same combination of artillery and mounted archers that enabled the Ottomans to defeat the Safavids, Mamluks, and Hungarians and the Safavids to defeat the Uzbeks gave the Mughals a definite but limited military superiority in the subcontinent. The new organization reflected of Akbar's ongoing program of reform and rationalization, which extended throughout the civil and military institutions of the state. In 1600, Akbar's Mughal Empire had revenue of £17.5 million. , While this system might appear regressive or primitive to outside observersit persisted for a century after the decline of its Mediterranean counterpartit adequately served the needs of the Mughal state. The Mughal difficulty in sieges had tactical and logistic causes. , The Padshah Babar's mother was a Mughal, but throughout his memoirs Babar speaks with contempt and dislike of the race, by the name of which the Indians erroneously called his dynasty. 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