On the destruction of the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim by John Hyrcanus, see for instance: Menahem Mor, "The Persian, Hellenistic and Hasmonean Period," in, Tubbs, Jonathan (2006) "The Canaanites" (BBC Books), History of the Jews in the Byzantine Empire, "Saul and Highlands of Benjamin Update: The Role of Jerusalem", "First Israel, Core Israel, United (Northern) Israel", First Israel, Core Israel, United (Northern) Israel, "The Iron I/IIA Transition in the Levant: A Reply to Mazar and Bronk Ramsey and a New Perspective", Jerusalem in the First Temple period (c.1000-586 B.C.E. What empires conquered israel and judah 2 See answers dreblue dreblue Neo-Assyrian Empire and then the Neo-Babylonian Empire before a revolt against the latter led to its destruction in 586 BCE. IDENTIFYING THE 12 TRIBES OF ISRAEL by Bruce McKerras Foreword by Yair Davidiy, representing Brit-Am, Movement of the Ten Tribes. , The beginning of the Hellenistic Period is marked by the conquest of Alexander the Great (333 BCE). Jonathan used this chance to exchange his services of troops for Demetrius so that he could take back Jerusalem. The one not thrown in prison was later killed on his orders. The Kingdom of Judah, or Southern Kingdom, existed as an independent state until 586 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Babylonian Empire . The arranged marriage did not work and Berenice, Antiochus, and their child were killed from an order of Antiochus' former wife.  During the reign of Hezekiah, between c. 715 and 686 BCE, a notable increase in the power of the Judean state can be observed. FOREIGN EMPIRES WHO HAVE RULED IIN ISRAEL. They started to catch the attention of King Antiochus IV in 165, who told his chancellor to put an end to the revolt. The Israelite ethnic identity had originated, not from the Exodus and a subsequent conquest, but from a transformation of the existing Canaanite-Philistine cultures. However, in 153 the Seleucid Empire started to face some problems. Israel has become the province of Assyria, and Judah has preserved its independence, but it had to pay to the Assyrians huge tax.  According to the biblical history, one of the first acts of Cyrus, the Persian conqueror of Babylon, was to commission Jewish exiles to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple, a task which they are said to have completed c. Assyria conquered Israel, then Babylon conquered Assyria and Judah, then Persia conquered Babylon, then the Seuclid Empire conquered Judah, then the Judeans revolted, then Rome conquered Judah, then the Islamic Caliphate conquered the Byzantine Empire (the remains of the Roman Empire). The Hebrew empire eventually collapses, Moab successfully revolts against Judah, and Ammon successfully secedes from Israel.  Judah prospered as a vassal state (despite a disastrous rebellion against Sennacherib), but in the last half of the 7th century BCE, Assyria suddenly collapsed, and the ensuing competition between Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the land led to the destruction of Judah in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582.  It may even have improved, as they were rewarded with the land and property of the deportees, much to the anger of the community of exiles remaining in Babylon. ), the obelisk is now in the British Museum.  There are indications that during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE, the southern highlands had been divided between a number of centres, none with clear primacy. Blenkinsopp in Blenkinsopp 2003, pp. Assyria went on to conquer Egypt, setting the trend for future empires invading from the north. He simply defended the area of Palestine from Ptolemy V before being murdered by his minister in 175. The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III claims that an Israeli king named Jehu was forced to pay tribute to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (reign 859-824 B.C.  Israel had clearly emerged in the first half of the 9th century BCE, this is attested when the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III names "Ahab the Israelite" among his enemies at the battle of Qarqar (853 BCE). 1. , The Babylonian conquest entailed not just the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, but the liquidation of the entire infrastructure which had sustained Judah for centuries. This essentially made all of the tribe of Levi to return to Judah. Hezekiah (715-697 BC) continued with policy of paying tax to Assyria, but he tried to gain as bigger politic  With the emergence of the monarchy at the beginning of Iron Age II the kings promoted their family god, Yahweh, as the god of the kingdom, but beyond the royal court, religion continued to be both polytheistic and family-centered. When conflicts between Egypt and the Seleucids arose, Jonathan occupied the Acra. In the Late Bronze Age there were no more than about 25 villages in the highlands, but this increased to over 300 by the end of Iron Age I, while the settled population doubled from 20,000 to 40,000. This caused a civil war in Jerusalem that lasted for six years.  Yet it was probably not until the middle of the next century, at the earliest, that Jerusalem again became the capital of Judah. Following the installation of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty, the Province of Judea was wracked by civil disturbances, which culminated in the First Jewish–Roman War, the destruction of the Second Temple, the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. LMLK seals on storage jar handles, excavated from strata in and around that formed by Sennacherib's destruction, appear to have been used throughout Sennacherib's 29-year reign, along with bullae from sealed documents, some that belonged to Hezekiah himself and others that name his servants. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob, (eds), "The Blackwell Companion to Judaism (Blackwell, 2003), Marc Zvi, "The Creation of History in Ancient Israel" (Routledge, 1995), Cook, Stephen L., "The social roots of biblical Yahwism" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2004), Day, John (ed), "In search of pre-exilic Israel: proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament Seminar" (T&T Clark International, 2004), Gravett, Sandra L., "An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible: A Thematic Approach" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008), Grisanti, Michael A., and Howard, David M., (eds), "Giving the Sense:Understanding and Using Old Testament Historical Texts" (Kregel Publications, 2003), Hess, Richard S., "Israelite religions: an archaeological and biblical survey" Baker, 2007), Kavon, Eli, "Did the Maccabees Betray the Hanukka Revolution? Period to influences from Mesopotamia in this manner was Babylon conquered '' ( history, Book 1 paragraphs... 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